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  #1   ^
Old Mon, Jan-01-24, 04:43
Demi's Avatar
Demi Demi is offline
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Default Quality of LCDs may play a critical role in modulating long-term weight change

Low-Carbohydrate Diet Macronutrient Quality and Weight Change

Key Points

Are low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) associated with long-term weight change, and does the source and quality of macronutrients within LCDs influence these associations?

Findings In this cohort study using data from 3 large prospective cohort studies among 123 332 individuals, LCDs that emphasized high-quality proteins, fats and carbohydrates from whole grains and other healthy plant-based foods were significantly associated with slower weight gain in the long term. In contrast, LCDs emphasizing animal-sourced proteins and fats or refined carbohydrates were associated with faster weight gain.

Meaning These findings underscore the importance of diet quality within LCD patterns for long-term weight management.


The associations of low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) with long-term weight management remains unclear, and the source and quality of macronutrients within LCDs are less explored.

Objectives To prospectively examine associations between changes in LCD indices and weight change among US adults.

Design, Setting, and Participants This prospective cohort study included initially healthy participants at baseline from the Nursesí Health Study (NHS; 1986-2010), Nursesí Health Study II (NHSII; 1991-2015), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS; 1986-2018). Data analysis was performed between November 2022 and April 2023.

Exposures Five LCD indices were examined: (1) a total LCD (TLCD) emphasizing overall lower carbohydrate intake; (2) an animal-based LCD (ALCD) that emphasized animal-sourced protein and fat; (3) a vegetable-based LCD (VLCD) that emphasized plant-sourced protein and fat; (4) a healthy LCD (HLCD) emphasizing less refined carbohydrates, more plant protein, and healthy fat; and (5) an unhealthy LCD (ULCD) emphasizing less healthful carbohydrates, more animal protein, and unhealthy fat.

Main Outcomes and Measures The outcome of interest was 4-year changes in self-reported body weight.

Results A total of 123 332 participants (mean [SD] age, 45.0 [9.7] years; 103 320 [83.8%] female) were included in this study. The median carbohydrate intake (as a percentage of energy) of the highest quintiles of TLCD score at baseline ranged from 38.3% in HPFS to 40.9% in NHSII. Mean weight gain over 4-year intervals among participants varied from 0.8 kg in the HPFS to 1.8 kg in the NHSII. After adjusting for demographics and baseline and concomitant changes of selected lifestyle factors, each 1-SD increase in TLCD score was associated with 0.06 (95% CI, 0.04-0.08) kg more weight gain over the 4-year periods. Similarly, participants gained 0.13 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.14) kg per each 1-SD increase in ALCD score and 0.39 (95% CI, 0.37 to 0.40) kg per each 1-SD change in ULCD score. In contrast, each 1-SD increase in VLCD score was associated with 0.03 (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.04) kg less weight gain, and each 1-SD increase in HLCD score was associated with 0.36 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.38) kg less weight gain. The associations were more pronounced among obese individuals (per 1-SD increase in HLCD score: BMI ≥30, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.80, 0.97] kg less weight gain; BMI <25, 0.23 [95% CI, 0.20, 0.26] kg less weight gain; P for interaction < .001).

Conclusions and Relevance These findings suggest that the quality of LCDs may play a critical role in modulating long-term weight change. Only LCDs that emphasized high-quality protein, fat, and carbohydrates from whole grains and other plant-based foods were associated with less weight gain.

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  #2   ^
Old Mon, Jan-01-24, 19:32
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Dodger Dodger is online now
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Plan: Paleoish/Keto
Stats: 225/167/175 Male 71.5 inches
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It was hard to tell from the study but it looked like low-carb was less than 30% of calories. I much prefer less than 10% to be low-carb. thirty percent is, at best, medium-carbs.
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