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  #1   ^
Old Mon, Apr-08-19, 10:49
bevangel's Avatar
bevangel bevangel is online now
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Plan: modified adkins (sort of)
Stats: 265/176/167 Female 68.5 inches
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Default Diet Wars: The Ketogenic Diet

More nonsense from a "science writer" who hasn't really bothered to do her research...
Quote:
Diet Wars: The Ketogenic Diet

April 6, 2019 by Grace Browne, Science Writer



The ketogenic diet or ‘keto’ was first devised in the 1920s, but not with weight loss in mind. It was initially designed for the treatment of childhood epilepsy. Indeed, the keto diet is, in fact, an effective method of controlling epileptic seizures which are still used to this day, although its therapeutic mechanism has yet to be determined. The widespread appeal of the ketogenic diet can be attributed to its emphasis on hyper-palatable foods such as bacon, steak and butter, all while promising impressive weight loss results, not to mention claims of miraculous health benefits such as curing cancer and dramatically improving athletic performance. It has become particularly popular in Silicon Valley and is endorsed by celebrities such as Kim Kardashian and Halle Berry.

But is the ketogenic diet just another addition to the long list of diet trends, or is it legitimate? The demonization of carbohydrates has long been engrained into diet and weight loss culture. Low-carbohydrates diet became and stayed popular with the advent of the Atkin’s diet in the 1970s, devised by the cardiologist Robert Atkins. The diet reached the pinnacle of its success in the early 2000s, with as many as one in eleven North Americans claiming to be following the diet. Despite much evidence that the diet achieves pretty moderate weight loss results in comparison with basic energy restriction (and may increase the risk of heart disease) the low-carbohydrate diet, or some variation of it, has stuck around.

However, unlike other low-carb diets which typically emphasise protein as the main macronutrient, the keto diet focuses on fat. A ketogenic diet forces the body into a state of ketosis, typically after five days of following the diet. Ketosis is a physiological process by which the body breaks down stored fat into molecules called ketone bodies. Cells will then begin to use these ketone bodies to generate energy that would normally be supplied by the glucose that comes from carbohydrates. Essentially, the body begins to burn fat instead of carbs for energy. The standard ketogenic diet consists of a split of 80% fats, 16% protein, and 4% carbs. To stay in the so-called ‘ketogenic state’, an individual should consume no more than 20-50g net carbs a day. One medium-sized banana is approximately 27 grams of carbs, so it doesn’t leave much leeway. The majority of the diet is made up of fat-rich foods, such as meat, eggs, cheese, fish, nuts, butter, oils and seeds. Only small portions of certain low-fructose fruits (usually berries) are allowed, as well as non-starchy vegetables. Foods that are not ‘keto-friendly’ include most grains, starchy vegetables, as well as legumes and large quantities of fruit.

The ketogenic diet has not been found to be significantly more effective at promoting weight loss than simple calorie restriction. Weight loss achieved on the keto diet may solely be attributed to ultimately less overall calories consumed overall, achieved by eliminating basically an entire food group, although high fat consumption has been shown to be associated with increased levels of satiety, which may aid weight loss. The initial dramatic weight loss that many report when transitioning to becoming ‘fat-adapted’ can be attributed to loss of water weight that is caused by carbohydrates stores in the body carrying water molecules with them. The main problem with recommending the ketogenic diet for weight loss is adherence difficulties; the diet is simply tough to stick to over long periods of time. There are many reasons for this, including impact on social life as well as the expense of animal products. The diet requires a great amount of discipline and vigilance, and any kind of dietary slip up could ‘push one out of ketosis’. Any weight loss strategy is made redundant if it is unfeasible to maintain in the long-term.

One of the many purported claims of the keto diet is its potential therapeutic utilisation in the treatment of neurological disorders apart from epilepsy, including migraines and multiple sclerosis. This claim is based on the alleged neuroprotective effect the diet induces. Although some trials are in progress, there is little clinical proof at present supporting these statements. The diet has also been promoted as being effective in the management of type 2 diabetes. It is thought to achieve this by improving control of blood glucose levels, and decreasing the need for diabetes medications. The ketogenic diet has been suggested to have applications in the treatment of some types of cancer. This is based on the concept that some cancer cells are inefficient at processing ketone bodies for energy. This claim has yet to have any seriously robust scientific evidence to support it at present, with any clinical studies testing it producing mixed results and achieving very low levels of success. In addition, the over-consumption of saturated fat-rich foods such as butter and bacon is linked to increased risk of colorectal cancer, thus achieving the direct opposite intended effect.

There’s a lot we still don’t know about the ketogenic diet. To date, the majority of studies have been done in mice, with little translation into human studies. For this reason, its many claims are supported only by anecdotal evidence, and while there is an overwhelming amount it does not amount to scientific evidence. Additionally, the diet’s restrictive criteria may leave followers of the diet at risk for nutrient deficiencies, as, if uncareful, their diet may lack the essential vitamins and minerals that fruit, vegetables, legumes and grains would supply. A 2019 study found that a high-fat diet followed for a six-month period led to ‘unfavourable changes’ in the gut microbiome of the subjects, which may lead to larger and more dangerous health implication in the future. In addition, the build-up of ketones in the body has a number of undesirable side effects. These include nausea, headaches, mental fatigue and bad breath caused by the acetone-smell of excess ketones. These symptoms collectively are often referred to as the ‘keto flu’.

Its rigidity and high cost mean it is not feasible for everyone, and there is a paucity of evidence to support it being more effective than any other diet for weight loss.

As for the ketogenic diet’s other supposed applications, bar epilepsy, the proof is weak and unconvincing.




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  #2   ^
Old Mon, Apr-08-19, 11:08
Meme#1's Avatar
Meme#1 Meme#1 is offline
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All I can think about that is poor thing, she just doesn't know what she doesn't know!
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  #3   ^
Old Mon, Apr-08-19, 11:54
GRB5111's Avatar
GRB5111 GRB5111 is offline
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Plan: Ketogenic (LCHFKD)
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Meme#1
All I can think about that is poor thing, she just doesn't know what she doesn't know!

Amen.
Quote:
The initial dramatic weight loss that many report when transitioning to becoming ‘fat-adapted’ can be attributed to loss of water weight that is caused by carbohydrates stores in the body carrying water molecules with them. The main problem with recommending the ketogenic diet for weight loss is adherence difficulties; the diet is simply tough to stick to over long periods of time.

Guess I lost over 40lbs. of water. When will adherence be a problem, I'm into my 7th year, and I want to prepare for when it gets really difficult . . . ???
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  #4   ^
Old Mon, Apr-08-19, 12:11
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cotonpal cotonpal is online now
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Plan: very low carb real food
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Quote:
Originally Posted by GRB5111
Amen.

Guess I lost over 40lbs. of water. When will adherence be a problem, I'm into my 7th year, and I want to prepare for when it gets really difficult . . . ???


So, I've been keto or close to it for most of the past 15 years with over 100 pounds of water lost. Amazing!

Furthermore, these are just anecdotes with no science to back them up.
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  #5   ^
Old Mon, Apr-08-19, 13:32
Dodger's Avatar
Dodger Dodger is online now
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Plan: Paleoish
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I seem to have lost and not found 55 pounds of water. Its been missing for over 17 years.
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  #6   ^
Old Mon, Apr-08-19, 14:49
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thud123 thud123 is offline
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Plan: ~25NC/IF
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I found some truth in the article, "...There’s a lot we still don’t know about the ketogenic diet." I can agree with this.
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  #7   ^
Old Mon, Apr-08-19, 19:30
bevangel's Avatar
bevangel bevangel is online now
Posts: 1,954
 
Plan: modified adkins (sort of)
Stats: 265/176/167 Female 68.5 inches
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Progress: 91%
Location: Austin, TX
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Quote:
...There’s a lot we still don’t know about the ketogenic diet.

well yeah, but... there's a lot we still don't know about low fat diets. And there's a lot we still don't know about calorie-restriction diets. And there's a lot we still don't know about vegan diets. And there's a lot we still don't know about vegetarian diets. And there's a lot we still don't know about the SAD. And there's a lot we still don't know about diets that restrict (or allow) dairy. And so on and so on and so on.

Let's face it, when it comes to feeding people, despite the fact that the human race has been doing it more or less successfully ever since humans came into existence, there's a lot we still don't know. PERIOD.

Why do nutritionists insist that we apparently have to know EVERYTHING about the keto diet - including being able to scientifically explain the mechanisms by which it works - before they'll consider recommending it? But they don't apply the same criteria to every other diet?
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  #8   ^
Old Mon, Apr-08-19, 19:55
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Ms Arielle Ms Arielle is offline
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Good high school paper. Just scratches the surface, and several points incorrect.
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  #9   ^
Old Tue, Apr-09-19, 07:23
Dodger's Avatar
Dodger Dodger is online now
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Plan: Paleoish
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Grace is a college student and the paper that article is printed in is a college newspaper.

https://www.gracefbrowne.com/
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  #10   ^
Old Tue, Apr-09-19, 07:32
thud123's Avatar
thud123 thud123 is offline
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Plan: ~25NC/IF
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Way to go Grace! Your paper kind of infers we don't know everything about anything really. With your questioning mind you're on the road to new discoveries. Keep writing, keep researching and keep an open mind
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  #11   ^
Old Tue, Apr-09-19, 14:54
bkloots's Avatar
bkloots bkloots is offline
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Plan: Atkins/LCHF
Stats: 195/162/150 Female 63in
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Quote:
its many claims are supported only by anecdotal evidence, and while there is an overwhelming amount it does not amount to scientific evidence.
Let me stick with that "overwhelming" crowd!

Thank you all.
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  #12   ^
Old Wed, Apr-10-19, 13:13
WereBear's Avatar
WereBear WereBear is offline
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Plan: Epi-Paleo/IF
Stats: 220/149/150 Female 67
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Quote:
Originally Posted by GRB5111
Amen.

Guess I lost over 40lbs. of water. When will adherence be a problem, I'm into my 7th year, and I want to prepare for when it gets really difficult . . . ???


I always figure it's the sugar addiction talking.
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  #13   ^
Old Thu, Apr-11-19, 10:43
CityGirl8 CityGirl8 is offline
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Plan: Protein Power, IF
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BF:53.75%/48.7%/25%
Progress: 26%
Location: PNW
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Quote:
Originally Posted by bkloots
Quote:
its many claims are supported only by anecdotal evidence, and while there is an overwhelming amount it does not amount to scientific evidence.

Let me stick with that "overwhelming" crowd!

Thank you all.

I missed this the first time around. Actually, it's claims are supported by clinical scientific evidence and when put up alongside low-fat and the "Mediterranean" diet has come out ahead on both weight loss, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. (See the Spanish and Israeli studies).
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  #14   ^
Old Thu, Apr-11-19, 11:17
WereBear's Avatar
WereBear WereBear is offline
Posts: 11,382
 
Plan: Epi-Paleo/IF
Stats: 220/149/150 Female 67
BF:
Progress: 101%
Location: USA
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Quote:
its many claims are supported only by anecdotal evidence, and while there is an overwhelming amount it does not amount to scientific evidence.


This is a favorite rebuttal from some people. The ones who say stuff like, "I want X number of journals with X levels of peer review with X double-blind studies..."

Okay, fine. I would certainly want that if I, say, was signing up for a head transplant. Can't be too careful with that kind of thing.

But eating the way humans have for thousands of years? When I can stop at any time? When there are NO permanent side effects within years even by the most skeptical authorities? When I can get a medical test to see if the heinous consequences are about to happen? When I can get rather swift body feedback on how my body feels about it?

I'll give anec-data a try. Especially if I'm suffering now and I don't have 20 years to wait for new stuff to migrate into the mainstream.
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  #15   ^
Old Thu, Apr-11-19, 11:33
GRB5111's Avatar
GRB5111 GRB5111 is offline
Posts: 2,779
 
Plan: Ketogenic (LCHFKD)
Stats: 227/186/185 Male 6' 0"
BF:
Progress: 98%
Location: Herndon, VA
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Quote:
The ketogenic diet has been suggested to have applications in the treatment of some types of cancer. This is based on the concept that some cancer cells are inefficient at processing ketone bodies for energy. This claim has yet to have any seriously robust scientific evidence to support it at present, with any clinical studies testing it producing mixed results and achieving very low levels of success.

Neither did the food pyramid, but we took that one seriously enough to recommend it to everyone. How have the rates of diabetes, heart disease, and cancer progressed since then?
Quote:
In addition, the over-consumption of saturated fat-rich foods such as butter and bacon is linked to increased risk of colorectal cancer, thus achieving the direct opposite intended effect.

Ok, you want it both ways, eh? Cite the lack of "seriously robust scientific evidence" on one hand, but report that butter and bacon are linked to increased risk of colorectal cancer on the other in the absence of "seriously robust scientific evidence." This budding journalist needs a lesson in the application of consistency in reasoning.
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