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  #31   ^
Old Fri, Aug-24-12, 12:17
Nancy LC's Avatar
Nancy LC Nancy LC is offline
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New Insights Into Salt Transport in the Kidney

Quote:
ScienceDaily (Aug. 23, 2012) — Sodium chloride, better known as salt, is vital for the organism, and the kidneys play a crucial role in the regulation of sodium balance. However, the underlying mechanisms of sodium balance are not yet completely understood. Researchers of the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) Berlin-Buch, Charité -- Universitätsmedizin Berlin and the University of Kiel have now deciphered the function of a gene in the kidney and have thus gained new insights into this complex regulation process.

In humans, the kidneys filter around 1700 liters of blood every day, of which 180 liters are collected as primary urine and ultimately one to two liters of urine are excreted. The kidneys thus wash toxic waste products out of the body, but retain some useful substances and reintroduce them into the body, thus simultaneously regulating the salt and water balance.

Molecular velcro
In the study just published by Dr. Tilman Breiderhoff, Prof. Thomas Willnow (both MDC), as well as Dr. Nina Himmerkus and Prof. Markus Bleich (both of the University of Kiel) and Dr. Dominik Müller (Charité) the focus is on the claudin-10 gene, which is expressed in a specific segment of the kidney, in Henle's loop. In the thick ascending limb of this loop, , a large part of the filtered sodium chloride, as well as calcium and magnesium are reabsorbed. The gene product under investigation, the claudin 10 protein, belongs to a family of proteins that connect the epithelial cells which cover the inner and outer surfaces of the body and stick them together like velcro. Claudins, however, also form pores, through which ions and substances are transported between the cells.
"If these transport processes are disturbed, this can lead to serious loss of function of the kidneys," Dr. Breiderhoff explained. As example he cited various human hereditary diseases in which either absorption of table salt (Bartter syndrome) or of calcium and magnesium (familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis - FHHNC) is disturbed. The second disease is characterized by a lack of magnesium in the blood and an excess of calcium in the urine, which leads to calcification of the kidneys. It is caused by mutations in one of two genes (claudin 16 or claudin 19), which also belong to the gene family of the claudins.
The researchers have now demonstrated in mice that the claudin-10 gene is involved in the reabsorption of salt in the kidney. If the gene in the kidney is deactivated, the reabsorption of sodium is impaired, but the reabsorption of calcium and magnesium is increased. The consequence is that the mice have elevated magnesium levels in the blood, and excess calcium is deposited in the kidney. Simultaneously, the urine volume is increased because the kidneys of the mice cannot reabsorb enough water, a sign that the recovery of salt is disturbed.


I think what happens is you lose your molecular velcro when you lose too much sodium on a VLC diet. Then you don't recycle important minerals as you should.

So address the sodium issue first, then potassium and magnesium.
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  #32   ^
Old Fri, Aug-24-12, 12:47
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Whofan Whofan is offline
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Plan: Low Carb Primal
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Very interesting. Thanks, Nancy. Because of this thread I put salt on my salad today, something I've never done before in my life.
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  #33   ^
Old Fri, Aug-24-12, 23:52
bike2work bike2work is offline
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Plan: Fung-inspired fasting
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I'm reading an article about JUDDD and found this:

Quote:
According to John Daugirdas, MD, a kidney specialist and author of The QOD Diet: Eating Well Every Other Day (White Swan Publishing), salt is key. "We're used to taking in so much sodium that when we eat less—and therefore consume less salt—we feel weak and washed-out," he says. To obtain what he considers the bare minimum "off" day nutrients—1,500 milligrams of sodium, 2,000 of potassium, and 300 of calcium—Daugirdas suggests sodium-heavy canned tomato juice, plus several mini meals of vegetables and a little protein: an egg white, half a slice of cheese, or his secret weapon, olive-oil-packed sardines. "They have lots of protein and healthy fat to stave off hunger," he claims.
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  #34   ^
Old Sat, Aug-25-12, 11:51
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deirdra deirdra is offline
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Plan: HF/vLC/GF,CF,SF
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Quote:
Originally Posted by bike2work
I'm glad to have justification to eat salt, I use it liberally anyway, but I can't square this with paleo thinking. Was salt easily available to our ancestors? Would they have consumed it in such large quantities?
In addition to a lot of areas being on the coast today, a lot of the rocks on the continents were once at the bottom of the sea and contain salt (that is where salt is mined from).
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  #35   ^
Old Tue, Aug-28-12, 21:07
Nancy LC's Avatar
Nancy LC Nancy LC is offline
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Quote from "The Art and Science of Low Carb living"
Quote:
In contrast, Dr. Hoffer's subjects were given 5 grams of sodium per day, and there was: a) no difference in water weight loss between his two diet groups, and b) his low carb subjects had no headache, no dizziness, and their endurance performance (assessed in a separate concurrent study) was as good or better than the subjects given the mixed diet.


Quote:
...At some point, when confronted with this low sodium intake plus carbohydrate restriction, most people's defense mechanisms can't maintain normal mineral balances. So the body's next level of defense is for the adrenal gland to secrete the hormone aldosterone, which makes kidney tubular cells excrete potassium in order to conserve sodium. That is, the body wastes some of its intracellular potassium in order to cling to whatever sodium it can. However unless there is copious potassium coming in from the diet, this excess urinary potassium comes from the body's potassium pool inside cells. Two things then happen. First, nerve and muscle cells don't work well, leading to cardiac dysrhythmias and muscle cramps. Second, because potassium is an obligate component of lean tissue, the body starts losing muscle even if there's plenty of protein in the diet.
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  #36   ^
Old Wed, Aug-29-12, 07:16
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Sujaya Sujaya is offline
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Plan: Low-carb/Low-calorie
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Powerade Zero is a sugar-free kind of electrolyte drink with zero carbs that my doctor recommended to me, and it helps with the potassium/sodium balance tremendously!

Also Whofan, I used to get those same leg cramps! My toes actually curl into the bottoms of my feet and the cramps go all the way to my hips. My doctor prescribed me Klonopin to take before bedtime with the Powerade Zero and I haven't had one since. Might want to ask your doctor about it.
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  #37   ^
Old Wed, Aug-29-12, 09:40
Whofan's Avatar
Whofan Whofan is offline
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Sujaya: Thank you for the info on Powerade Zero and Klonopin. If the salt cure stops working I'll look into them further. The salt is actually working at lightening speed. Earlier this week I took some at bedtime when the first twinge hit and no cramp happened. Last night the same thing. I got really bad twinges in my foot (the toes curling type) and had to walk around to ease them. This ALWAYS means that I'm in for a bad night with spasms up through the calf. But I got a bowl of salt from the kitchen and kept dipping my finger in it until I couldn't stand the taste any more. Guess what? No cramp. I'm kind of shocked by it.
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  #38   ^
Old Fri, Aug-31-12, 15:18
Nancy LC's Avatar
Nancy LC Nancy LC is offline
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Plan: Paleo 99.5%
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Salt and Health
Salt, We Misjudged You. Another contribution from Gary Taubes.

Treating mild high blood pressure with drugs found to be ineffective

BP cuffs are pretty cheap and it's a cinch to monitor at home. Get a second hand one if you can't afford a new model. Experiment with salt and see if it messes you up.
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  #39   ^
Old Fri, Aug-31-12, 19:45
Aradasky's Avatar
Aradasky Aradasky is offline
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Plan: Atkins
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Salt mines are ancient around the world and have you ever seen a herd of animals gather around a salt lick?


Nancy,what a great thread.
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  #40   ^
Old Fri, Aug-31-12, 20:05
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coachjeff coachjeff is offline
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I haven't read all the posts in this thread, but can say from personal experience as someone who once had pre-hypertension (Even though I was at a healthy bodyweight) while on a higher-carb diet that was fairly low in salt, I now have totally normal blood-pressure (by a wide margin) on an LC diet, even though I now eat LOTS of salt. I truly believe LC is MUCH more effective for blood-pressure normalization than salt restriction.

And as noted by the OP...on an LC diet ya NEED that tasty salt!
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  #41   ^
Old Mon, Sep-03-12, 17:41
Aradasky's Avatar
Aradasky Aradasky is offline
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Plan: Atkins
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Read this and read this and re-read this thread. Going up to 2tsp of purposely ingested salt a day. 1 in am and 1 in pm.

Been at 1 tsp per day. Just to see.....
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  #42   ^
Old Tue, Sep-04-12, 07:40
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Gilly07 Gilly07 is offline
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Plan: General Low Carb
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I only use celtic sea salt and you don't need to use as much of that as regular salt.
Can anyone help me work out what I need??
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  #43   ^
Old Tue, Sep-04-12, 07:54
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perfectfit perfectfit is offline
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Plan: Atkins 72 with real foods
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I keep 2 salt shakers on my kitchen counter. One contains seasalt and the other contains NOSALT. I sprinkle a little of both on my meals.
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  #44   ^
Old Tue, Sep-04-12, 10:03
Nancy LC's Avatar
Nancy LC Nancy LC is offline
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Plan: Paleo 99.5%
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Gilly07
Can anyone help me work out what I need??

Phinney says 5g a day. So, take a typical day of food that you eat and plug it into MyPlan. For me it's around 1.5g - 2.5g from food. Then I add some salt, have some broth, to get it higher.

1 tsp of salt has 2.5g of sodium.
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  #45   ^
Old Tue, Sep-04-12, 10:06
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friday13th friday13th is offline
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Plan: Atkins
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hmmm... how does all this tie in with people like me on high bp drugs like lisinopril and the water pill HCTZ?? I am over weight of course, but have been on high BP rx even when I wasnt, they say it is heridtary.. any ideas? I know I can tell when I am low on potasium. (lisinopril is potasium sparing and hctz isnt) so I add no salt at times. Im not sure what is right for me.
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