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  #1   ^
Old Tue, Sep-02-03, 15:22
doreen T's Avatar
doreen T doreen T is offline
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Plan: DANDR '92
Stats: 241/173/140 Female 165 cm
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Progress: 67%
Location: Eastern ON, Canada
Exclamation Dietary Trans Fatty Acids Increase Small, Dense LDL Particles (the "bad" cholesterol)

Dietary Trans Fatty Acids Increase Small, Dense LDL Particles

Laurie Barclay, MD

Sept. 2, 2003 Ś Consumption of dietary trans fatty acids (FAs) is associated with a deleterious increase in small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol particles, according to the results of a study published in the September issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. This finding further reinforces the importance of promoting diets low in trans FAs to improve the lipoprotein profile.

"Dietary trans FAs, which are formed during the process of hydrogenating vegetable oil, are known to increase plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations," write Jean-Franšois Mauger, from Laval University in Quebec, Canada, and colleagues. "Accumulating evidence indicates that the size of LDL particles confers an independent risk, with small and dense particles being more atherogenic than are larger, less dense particles."

In this study, 18 women and 18 men each consumed five different experimental diets in random order for 35-day periods. In each diet, fat accounted for 30% of total energy intake. However, the diets differed in fat composition, with two thirds of the fat in the form of semiliquid margarine (0.6 g trans FAs/100 g fat), soft margarine (9.4 g trans FAs/100 g fat), shortening (13.6 g trans FAs/100 g fat), stick margarine (26.1 g trans FAs/100 g fat), or butter, which was low in trans FAs (2.6 g trans FAs/100 g fat) but rich in saturated fat. Polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis identified LDL particle size and distribution.

With increasing amounts of dietary trans FAs, LDL particle size decreased significantly and in a dose-dependent fashion compared with LDL particle size seen with the butter-enriched diet (P < .001). Cholesterol concentration in large (>260 ┼) and medium (255?260 ┼) size LDL particles also increased proportionately to the amount of trans FAs in the diet.

"Interestingly, compared with the four diets enriched in trans fatty acids, the diet enriched with saturated fat (butter) was associated with the highest plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations but, paradoxically, the largest LDL particles," the authors write. "These data reinforce the importance of promoting diets that are low in saturated fat and that contain a minimal quantity of trans fatty acids from hydrogenated fat in order to favorably affect the lipoprotein profile and thus contribute to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease."

The authors report no potential conflicts of interest in this study.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(3):370-375
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  #2   ^
Old Tue, Sep-02-03, 15:33
doreen T's Avatar
doreen T doreen T is offline
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Posts: 35,833
 
Plan: DANDR '92
Stats: 241/173/140 Female 165 cm
BF:
Progress: 67%
Location: Eastern ON, Canada
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Quote:
Accumulating evidence indicates that the size of LDL particles confers an independent risk, with small and dense particles being more atherogenic than are larger, less dense particles."
Actually, the larger, less dense particles are thought to be beneficial. According to the Drs. Eades of Protein Power:
... Depending on the type of particles that predominate, one is said to have either pattern A or pattern B. With pattern A, the LDL is light, fluffy, and relatively large. This pattern is actually thought to be beneficial. With pattern B, the molecule is heavy, dense, and relatively small. This pattern is thought to be detrimental ............. When triglycerides go down after (low-carb diet) has been adopted, a phenomenon called the "beta shift" occurs where LDL is transformed into pattern A. So, paradoxically, even though the level of LDL appears to increase, the type of LDL that is being formed is usually much healthier

http://eatprotein.com/answers11.htm#11e
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

But the journal article states ...
Quote:
"Interestingly, compared with the four diets enriched in trans fatty acids, the diet enriched with saturated fat (butter) was associated with the highest plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations but, paradoxically, the largest LDL particles," the authors write. "These data reinforce the importance of promoting diets that are low in saturated fat and that contain a minimal quantity of trans fatty acids from hydrogenated fat ... bla bla bla ...

Hello??

Butter led to an increase in the larger LDL particles, which are believed to be beneficial. So, the recommendation is to eat less saturated fat and butter.

Makes sense to me. NOT!!


Doreen
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  #3   ^
Old Tue, Sep-02-03, 17:40
cc48510 cc48510 is offline
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Plan: Atkins
Stats: 320/220/195 Male 6'0"
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Location: Pensacola, FL
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Quote:
Originally Posted by doreen T
Butter led to an increase in the larger LDL particles, which are believed to be beneficial. So, the recommendation is to eat less saturated fat and butter.

Makes sense to me. NOT!!


The "solution" will ALWAYS be to eat less Saturated Fat. Saturated Fat is Bad in their opinion and they won't let any proof to the contrary get in the way. They will always spin it so that Saturated Fat is bad. Saturated Fat raises Good LDL and HDL Cholesterol. Instead of reporting this...it is always reported: "Saturated Fat Raises Cholesterol" or "Saturated Fat Raises LDL Cholesterol." I almost never hear anyone mention that it raises HDL and they never mention that the LDL it raises is the Light, Fluffy (possibly beneficial) kind.

Interestingly enough, when it comes to grains which lower HDL and can contribute to your LDL being the Small, Dense (possibly detrimental) variety...they spin it with something like: "Cherrios may lower your Cholesterol" or "Eating a diet high in Fruit may lower Cholesterol." Conviniently left out is the Cholesterol that is lowered the most is your HDL (Good) Cholesterol and that following such a suggestion would raise your Triglycerides and possibly lead to Small, Dense (Detrimental) LDL Cholesterol.

This is why they DO NOT want to go further into LDL/HDL subtypes. If they researched all the subtypes and listed each as Beneficial/Detrimental...and then tested for all the subtypes...I'd bet anything that they'd discover that a Low-Fat/Hi-Carb diet worsens your Cholesterol. As long as they can keep people focused on Total Cholesterol and LDL, they can spin any studies that show Low-Fat is bad for your health to sound like Low-Fat is good for your heart.
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  #4   ^
Old Tue, Sep-02-03, 19:13
doreen T's Avatar
doreen T doreen T is offline
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Posts: 35,833
 
Plan: DANDR '92
Stats: 241/173/140 Female 165 cm
BF:
Progress: 67%
Location: Eastern ON, Canada
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I saw a stand-up comedian on TV recently, whose observation was that we've been so indoctrinated and brainwashed to fear saturated fat and cholesterol, that most Americans are now more afraid of an EGG than they are of terrorist attack.




Doreen
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  #5   ^
Old Tue, Sep-02-03, 22:17
cc48510 cc48510 is offline
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Posts: 2,018
 
Plan: Atkins
Stats: 320/220/195 Male 6'0"
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Progress: 80%
Location: Pensacola, FL
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by doreen T
I saw a stand-up comedian on TV recently, whose observation was that we've been so indoctrinated and brainwashed to fear saturated fat and cholesterol, that most Americans are now more afraid of an EGG than they are of terrorist attack.




Doreen


I don't know which is worse:

1) Recomending a Diet with no more than 300mg of Cholesterol...despite the fact they outright admit they've never found any link between dietary cholesterol and blood cholesterol; or

2) Outright lying about Saturated Fat, claiming it increases your risk of heart disease when in fact it lowers your risk of heart disease [by raising HDL and changing your LDL Pattern to a large, less dense one].

They scared us off of Saturated Fats starting about 50 years ago. Back then, heart disease, obesity, and diabetes were far less prevelant. It is now estimated that the Trans-Fats they replaced Saturated Fats with, kills 5,000 people/year. Despite all this, they are STILL pushing a diet high in baked goods [almost all baked goods have Trans-Fat in them,] and low in Saturated Fat. Low Saturated Fat [in most cases] means Hi Trans-Fat.
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