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  #1   ^
Old Sat, Jan-09-21, 01:50
Demi's Avatar
Demi Demi is offline
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Default A guide to brown fat – and why it could hold the secret to weight loss

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A guide to brown fat – and why it could hold the secret to weight loss

A new study has revealed that the mysterious tissue, known as brown fat, could hold the key to beating diabetes. Here's why


Fat has a controversial reputation in the health world. While most of us do everything we can to avoid accumulating white fat – the pesky tissue that hugs our hips, and expands our waistlines – it seems not all fat is created equal. In recent years, research into ‘brown fat’, the brown adipose tissue (BAT) which is activated when we get cold, could play a part in keeping serious diseases, such as type-2 diabetes, at bay.

In a new study published in the journal Nature, researchers from Rockefeller University found that people with detectable brown fat were 14 percent less likely to have abnormally high cholesterol and had half the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The researchers, who looked at PET scans of 52,000 patients and compared those with and without detectable brown fat, also found that people with brown fat were also at a lower risk of high blood pressure, congestive heart failure and coronary artery disease.

“This is a large scale study so it provides pretty good evidence, on a population wide basis, that having active brown fat is beneficial in reducing your risk of suffering from type 2 diabetes,” says Professor Michael Symonds, deputy head of the University of Nottingham School of Medicine.

The primary role of brown fat – which is mainly stored in our necks, but can also be found in the collarbone and spine – is to provide warmth; it produces 300 times more heat than anywhere else in the body. Prof Symonds explains that the tissue is first activated in a newborn as part of the body’s metabolic adaptations to cope with the cold exposure from being born. As we age, the amount of brown fat in our body gradually decreases. According to Prof Symonds, the average adult may have about 100 grams of brown fat.

It may seem contradictory that fat tissue can help us to lose weight rather than gain it. Prof Symonds explains that brown fat has a unique protein – the uncoupling protein 1 ( UCP1) – which makes it different from white fat. “This protein is present on the inner mitochondria; when it’s stimulated, it’s able to rapidly produce lots of heat through a unique biochemical process,” he says. It does this by pulling white fat from storage and burning it – the more brown fat you have, the higher your capacity to stay lean. “For decades, the holy grail of brown fat research has been understanding whether it could play a part in curing obesity," he adds.

While nothing has been definitively proven in humans, experiments on mice have shown that adding more brown fat to their bodies increased the rate at which they burn energy, reduce the amount of fat on their bodies and protect them from diet-induced obesity.

So is there a way that adults can activate their brown fat? A simple cup of coffee could be the answer. In 2019, Prof Symonds and a team of researchers released a pioneering study, which suggested that drinking a cup of coffee can stimulate brown fat. The team started with a series of stem cell studies to see if caffeine would stimulate brown fat. Once they had found the right dose, they then moved on to humans to see if the results were similar and monitored the brown fat using a thermal camera.

Another way is through exposure to the cold. To produce heat, brown fat burns glucose (sugars) and lipids (fats) which is why cold exposure appears to improve body composition and blood sugar levels. “Activities such as cold water swimming, exercising in low temperatures or even just putting your hand in something cold, will stimulate this activity – and could help to improve your glucose regulation and keep excess weight off,” he says. In 2008, researchers at Maastricht University learned that Wim Hof – the Dutch extreme athlete noted for his ability to withstand freezing temperatures – had built up so much brown fat that he could produce five times more heat energy than the typical 20-year-old; most likely from his repeated exposure to cold.

Immersion in cold water also helps to boost your immune system, increase endorphins and improve circulation; so it might be worth taking a dip regardless.

But could brown fat hold the key to one day tackling the obesity epidemic? It's a promising thought, says Prof Symonds, although he thinks it could be harnessed more effectively to tackle the illnesses associated with excess weight.

“Brown fat breaks down the fatty acids within lipids, but it also uses high amounts of glucose. In terms of promoting health, it may actually be better for combating or preventing diabetes.” he says.

The only way to know if you have brown fat is through a PET scan, which requires injecting radioactive material into the body. While this is relatively low-risk and can be helpful for detecting certain diseases like cancer, it's not recommended for otherwise healthy people. Plus, as Prof Symonds explains, activating too much brown fat in our bodies would feel deeply unpleasant; we would be sweating vigorously, burning excess energy and constantly needing the window open. So until scientists better understand the workings of brown fat, perhaps it’s best to stick to the simpler things.

Anyone for a coffee and cold water swim?


https://www.telegraph.co.uk/health-...et-weight-loss/
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  #2   ^
Old Sat, Jan-09-21, 01:53
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Demi Demi is offline
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Plan: Low Carb
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Brown adipose tissue is associated with cardiometabolic health

Abstract

White fat stores excess energy, whereas brown and beige fat are thermogenic and dissipate energy as heat. Thermogenic adipose tissues markedly improve glucose and lipid homeostasis in mouse models, although the extent to which brown adipose tissue (BAT) influences metabolic and cardiovascular disease in humans is unclear1,2. Here we retrospectively categorized 134,529 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography scans from 52,487 patients, by presence or absence of BAT, and used propensity score matching to assemble a study cohort. Scans in the study population were initially conducted for indications related to cancer diagnosis, treatment or surveillance, without previous stimulation. We report that individuals with BAT had lower prevalences of cardiometabolic diseases, and the presence of BAT was independently correlated with lower odds of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, congestive heart failure and hypertension. These findings were supported by improved blood glucose, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein values. The beneficial effects of BAT were more pronounced in individuals with overweight or obesity, indicating that BAT might play a role in mitigating the deleterious effects of obesity. Taken together, our findings highlight a potential role for BAT in promoting cardiometabolic health.



https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-1126-7
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Old Sat, Jan-09-21, 05:28
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WereBear WereBear is offline
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Plan: Epi-Paleo/IF
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Anyone for a coffee and cold water swim?


One I love and I need to start my cold shower program again
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  #4   ^
Old Sat, Jan-09-21, 09:57
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GRB5111 GRB5111 is offline
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Good info. Wim Hof has been explaining these benefits for a long time:

healthline.com/health/wim-hof-method
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  #5   ^
Old Sat, Jan-09-21, 12:16
Happy girl Happy girl is online now
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Sauna and cold showers is my cup of tea ... now and then.
Good for the heart, skin and overall a healthy treat IMO.

Love cold baths, been a while, think it is too cold for that now.
Around 30 F here now.

It is tempting though.

My experience is that caffeine raises insulin, maybe if I have some decaf <3

Last edited by Happy girl : Sat, Jan-09-21 at 12:27.
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