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  #1   ^
Old Thu, Nov-02-17, 07:42
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teaser teaser is online now
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Default Bacterial fats, not dietary ones, may deserve the blame for heart disease

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releas...71101151213.htm

Quote:
Bacterial fats, not dietary ones, may deserve the blame for heart disease

Heart disease and fatty clogs in the arteries go hand in hand. But new evidence suggests the fatty molecules might come not only from what you eat, but from the bacteria in your mouth, report UConn scientists in the 16 August issue of the Journal of Lipid Research. The research may explain why gum disease is associated with heart trouble.

Heart attacks and strokes are the crises we notice, but they result from a slow process of atherosclerosis, the hardening and clogging of the arteries with fatty substances called lipids. Immune cells stick to the walls of blood vessels, scavenge lipids, and multiply. The blood vessel walls inflame and thicken as the smooth muscle cells lining them change, swelling and dividing to create plaques, clogs, and warty growths called atheromas.

For a very long time, doctors and researchers assumed that the lipids came from eating fatty, cholesterol-rich food. But the research hasn't borne this out; some people who eat large amounts of the foods we thought were the sources of the fat, such as eggs, butter, fatty fish, and meat, don't necessarily develop heart disease.

UConn researchers believe they may have solved part of the puzzle. Using careful chemical analysis of atheromas collected from patients by a colleague at Hartford Hospital, they found lipids with a chemical signature unlike those from animals at all. Instead, these strange lipids come from a specific family of bacteria.

"I always call them greasy bugs because they make so much lipid. They are constantly shedding tiny blebs of lipids. Looks like bunches of grapes," on a bacterial scale, says Frank Nichols, a UConn Health periodontist who studies the link between gum disease and atherosclerosis. The bacteria, called Bacteroidetes, make distinctive fats. The molecules have unusual fatty acids with branched chains and odd numbers of carbons (mammals typically don't make either branched chain fatty acids or fatty acids with odd numbers of carbons).

Xudong Yao, a UConn associate professor of chemistry who analyzed the lipid samples, says the chemical differences between bacterial and human lipids result in subtle weight differences between the molecules. "We used these weight differences and modern mass spectrometers to selectively measure the quantity of the bacterial lipids in human samples to link the lipids to atherosclerosis," he says. "Establishment of such a link is a first step to mark the lipids as indicators for early disease diagnosis."

The marked chemical differences between Bacteroidetes lipids and the human body's native lipids may be the reason they cause disease, suggests Nichols. The immune cells that initially stick to the blood vessel walls and collect the lipids recognize them as foreign. These immune cells react to the lipids and set off alarm bells.

Nichols and Yao's team also showed that despite being non-native lipids, the Bacteroidetes lipids could be broken down by an enzyme in the body that processes lipids into the starting material to make inflammation-enhancing molecules. So the Bacteroidetes lipids have a double whammy on the blood vessels: the immune system sees them as a signal of bacterial invasion, and then enzymes break them down and super-charge the inflammation.

Despite the havoc they wreak, it's not the Bacteroidetes bacteria themselves invading. Usually these bacteria stay happily in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. If conditions are right, they can cause gum disease in the mouth, but not infect the blood vessels. But the lipids they produce pass easily through cell walls and into the bloodstream.

The next step in the research is to analyze thin slices of atheroma to localize exactly where the bacterial lipids are accumulating. If they can show the Bacteroidetes-specific lipids are accumulating within the atheroma, but not in the normal artery wall, that would be convincing evidence that these unusual lipids are associated specifically with atheroma formation, and therefore contribute to heart disease.

This research was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health.



Setting aside the cartoonish characterization of "fat and cholesterol clogged arteries," the idea of foreign lipids being recognized as such and triggering an inflammatory response is interesting.
A distinction has to be made between lipids and fats here. We're not talking about pure fat molecules here, but more complex structures that incorporate odd-chain fatty acids.

If these lipids can be a factor in this, they can likely be a factor in various other inflammatory conditions.

Quote:
Deposition and hydrolysis of serine dipeptide lipids of Bacteroidetes bacteria in human arteries: relationship to atherosclerosis




Quote:
ABSTRACT

Multiple reaction monitoring-MS analysis of lipid extracts from human carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery samples from young individuals consistently demonstrated the presence of bacterial serine dipeptide lipid classes, including Lipid 654, an agonist for human and mouse Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, and Lipid 430, the deacylated product of Lipid 654. The relative levels of Lipid 654 and Lipid 430 were also determined in common oral and intestinal bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes and human serum and brain samples from healthy adults. The median Lipid 430/Lipid 654 ratio observed in carotid endarterectomy samples was significantly higher than the median ratio in lipid extracts of common oral and intestinal Bacteroidetes bacteria, and serum and brain samples from healthy subjects. More importantly, the median Lipid 430/Lipid 654 ratio was significantly elevated in carotid endarterectomies when compared with control artery samples. Our results indicate that deacylation of Lipid 654 to Lipid 430 likely occurs in diseased artery walls due to phospholipase A2 enzyme activity. These results suggest that commensal Bacteriodetes bacteria of the gut and the oral cavity may contribute to the pathogenesis of TLR2-dependent atherosclerosis through serine dipeptide lipid deposition and metabolism in artery walls.
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  #2   ^
Old Thu, Nov-02-17, 23:45
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This is very interesting Teaser...
For years the dentists knew there was a connection between heart disease and gun disease but they didn't know the reasons.
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Old Mon, Dec-25-17, 18:48
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nawchem nawchem is offline
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I used to have low blood pressure. Since I developed gum disease bp has slowly risen. Its pretty pathetic that I've had dental insurance yet no one want to do much because I don't have plaque on my teeth and my gums look great.

I've often wondered if its not healier to just pull the teeth out.
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  #4   ^
Old Mon, Dec-25-17, 23:36
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Meme#1 Meme#1 is online now
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Quote:
Originally Posted by nawchem
I used to have low blood pressure. Since I developed gum disease bp has slowly risen. Its pretty pathetic that I've had dental insurance yet no one want to do much because I don't have plaque on my teeth and my gums look great.

I've often wondered if its not healier to just pull the teeth out.


For gum disease you need to go to a specialist called periodontist, they do a procedure called deep root plaining. The problem is below the gum surface, deep around the root and many times the gums look fine.
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Old Tue, Dec-26-17, 11:23
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nawchem nawchem is offline
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They won't refer me and have sometimes argued I don't have gum disease just irritation. I started going to Mexico but after I hurt my foot it wasn't an option the last 3 years. I have moderate osteoporosis.
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  #6   ^
Old Sat, Jun-30-18, 11:27
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BillyHW BillyHW is offline
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I just posted on a similar theory to this one in a new thread, but instead of the bacterial fats being the issue, it's the bacteria themselves, along with compounding factors like sugar.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthread.php?t=480642

I think both theories sound very plausible.
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  #7   ^
Old Sat, Jun-30-18, 12:16
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s93uv3h s93uv3h is offline
 
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I've read at least a couple of neurologist authors who link mouth health / microbiome to the brain (Dr. Perlmutter & Dr. Bredesen) . Now it's heart disease. Everything interconnects. Thanks for posting teaser.

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