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  #1   ^
Old Mon, Aug-24-20, 18:26
teaser's Avatar
teaser teaser is offline
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Default fructose, leaky gut, fatty liver

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releas...00824131807.htm

Quote:
Excessive fructose consumption may cause a leaky gut, leading to fatty liver disease

Excessive consumption of fructose -- a sweetener ubiquitous in the American diet -- can result in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is comparably abundant in the United States. But contrary to previous understanding, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine report that fructose only adversely affects the liver after it reaches the intestines, where the sugar disrupts the epithelial barrier protecting internal organs from bacterial toxins in the gut.

Developing treatments that prevent intestinal barrier disruption, the authors conclude in a study published August 24, 2020 in Nature Metabolism, could protect the liver from NAFLD, a condition that affects one in three Americans.

"NAFLD is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the world. It can progress to more serious conditions, such as cirrhosis, liver cancer, liver failure and death," said senior author Michael Karin, PhD, Distinguished Professor of Pharmacology and Pathology at UC San Diego School of Medicine. "These findings point to an approach that could prevent liver damage from occurring in the first place."

Fructose consumption in the U.S. has skyrocketed since the 1970s and the introduction of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), a cheaper sugar substitute that is broadly used in processed and packaged foods, from cereals and baked goods to soft drinks. Multiple studies in animals and humans have linked increased HFCS consumption with the nation's obesity epidemic and numerous inflammatory conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease and cancer. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, however, currently regulates it similar to other sweeteners, such as sucrose or honey, and advises only moderation of intake.

The new study, however, defines a specific role and risk for HFCS in the development of fatty liver disease. "The ability of fructose, which is plentiful in dried figs and dates, to induce fatty liver was known to the ancient Egyptians, who fed ducks and geese dried fruit to make their version of foie gras," said Karin.

"With the advent of modern biochemistry and metabolic analysis, it became obvious that fructose is two to three times more potent than glucose in increasing liver fat, a condition that triggers NAFLD. And the increased consumption of soft drinks containing HFCS corresponds with the explosive growth in NAFLD incidence."

Fructose is broken down in the human digestive tract by an enzyme called fructokinase, which is produced both by the liver and the gut. Using mouse models, researchers found that excessive fructose metabolism in intestinal cells reduces production of proteins that maintain the gut barrier -- a layer of tightly packed epithelial cells covered with mucus that prevent bacteria and microbial products, such as endotoxins, from leaking out of the intestines and into the blood.

"Thus, by deteriorating the barrier and increasing its permeability, excessive fructose consumption can result in a chronic inflammatory condition called endotoxemia, which has been documented in both experimental animals and pediatric NAFLD patients," said the study's first author Jelena Todoric, MD, PhD, a visiting scholar in Karin's lab.

In their study, Karin, Todoric and colleagues from universities and institutions around the world, found that leaked endotoxins reaching the liver provoked increased production of inflammatory cytokines and stimulated the conversion of fructose and glucose into fatty acid deposits.

"It is very clear that fructose does its dirty work in the intestine," said Karin, "and if intestinal barrier deterioration is prevented, the fructose does little harm to the liver."

The scientists noted that feeding mice with high amounts of fructose and fat results in particularly severe adverse health effects. "That's a condition that mimics the 95th percentile of relative fructose intake by American adolescents, who get up to 21.5 percent of their daily calories from fructose, often in combination with calorie-dense foods like hamburgers and French fries," Karin said.

Interestingly, the research team found that when fructose intake was reduced below a certain threshold, no adverse effects were observed in mice, suggesting only excessive and long-term fructose consumption represents a health risk. Moderate fructose intake through normal consumption of fruits is well-tolerated.

"Unfortunately, many processed foods contain HFCS and most people cannot estimate how much fructose they actually consume," said Karin. "Although education and increased awareness are the best solutions to this problem, for those individuals who had progressed to the severe form of NAFLD known as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, these findings offer some hope of a future therapy based on gut barrier restoration."
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  #2   ^
Old Mon, Aug-24-20, 19:27
Ms Arielle's Avatar
Ms Arielle Ms Arielle is offline
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Holy Cow!!! One out of THREE !!! Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease from consuming too much fructose......

Quote:
NAFLD, a condition that affects one in three Americans.

"NAFLD is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the world. It can progress to more serious conditions, such as cirrhosis, liver cancer, liver failure and death,"



Quote:
Fructose is broken down in the human digestive tract by an enzyme called fructokinase, which is produced both by the liver and the gut. Using mouse models, researchers found that excessive fructose metabolism in intestinal cells reduces production of proteins that maintain the gut barrier -- a layer of tightly packed epithelial cells covered with mucus that prevent bacteria and microbial products, such as endotoxins, from leaking out of the intestines and into the blood.

"Thus, by deteriorating the barrier and increasing its permeability, excessive fructose consumption can result in a chronic inflammatory condition called endotoxemia, which has been documented in both experimental animals and pediatric NAFLD patients," said the study's first author Jelena Todoric, MD, PhD, a visiting scholar in Karin's lab.


How much fruit is ok??

Why is fatty liver not verified by primaries?

Last edited by Ms Arielle : Mon, Aug-24-20 at 22:06.
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  #3   ^
Old Mon, Aug-24-20, 19:45
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thud123 thud123 is offline
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Quote:
Moderate fructose intake through normal consumption of fruits is well-tolerated.


whew! good to know
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  #4   ^
Old Tue, Aug-25-20, 05:20
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WereBear WereBear is offline
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High Fructose Corn Syrup is a super-concentrated form. For every label that says "No HFCS!" there's ten who do. In everything! Like TV dinners and dips; things that don't need sugar.
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  #5   ^
Old Tue, Aug-25-20, 07:59
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teaser teaser is offline
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Sort of funny that they're talking about leaky gut--> fatty liver like it's a new thing... or the fructose connection like it is. I've been seeing stuff about this on Pubmed probably at least for a decade.

Once you do have leaky gut--gluten and other food intolerances, possible autoimmune issues from partially digested proteins making it into the system. Fat is implicated under certain dietary contexts.

Quote:
excessive fructose metabolism in intestinal cells reduces production of proteins that maintain the gut barrier


Here I wonder if there's something as simple as a draw on certain amino acids to process the fructose, leading to a decrease in protein synthesis. Animal models tend to eat more frequently with high sugar cafeteria-style diets. Meal timing or intermittent fasting protocols might help by ensuring long periods when fructose is not being processed. High fat diets--glycemic index, we've been told in the past that fat plus sugar slows absorption of sugars, this could effectively increase the window where fructose metabolism is occurring, meals blur together.
Okay, they give endoplasmic stress as the villain in the abstract...

Quote:
ER stress occurs when the capacity of the ER to fold proteins becomes saturated. ER stress may be caused by factors that impair protein glycosylation or disulfide bond formation, or by overexpression of or mutations in proteins entering the secretory pathway.


In mice at least, fermentable fibers seem to be protective. The Eades suggested glutamine for leaky gut in Protein Power, I think Atkins probably did as well, somewhere, though I don't remember a specific time.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ar...0(53%2C%2054 ).

On fruit being okay--sort of. I've heard people say for years that people don't binge on fruit like they do other sugary foods. I'll go through a bunch of bananas in pretty short order, or would if I ever bought them. Even apples--for a while I was having one small one a day, that lasted a few days and then I ate the rest all at once.

I think we are talking about a high sugar diet and not an extremely high sugar diet, here. I'd like to see something on fruitarian diets, juice fasts etc. Obviously these are worse in some other ways, whether they're as bad for this particular problem still might be an open question.

I've seen some studies where oatmeal and orange juice were protective against a diet that would otherwise cause leaky gut in mice.
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  #6   ^
Old Tue, Aug-25-20, 08:11
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Ms Arielle Ms Arielle is offline
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Well, if the general doctors are 20-30 years behind in using modern research.....where does that put media?
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  #7   ^
Old Tue, Aug-25-20, 12:45
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Bob-a-rama Bob-a-rama is offline
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HFCS became popular when the US Government decided to spend $4B per year on price supports for the sugar industry, making the US consumer pay the highest prices for sugar in the world and the sugar corporations some of the richest in the world.

One thing I know about US corn is that there is an insecticide edited in the genes of the corn. The insect eats the GMO corn, and its intestines rupture, killing the insect.

Insecticides are simply biocides, and kill everything. The dose for an insect is simply much less than one for a human.

So I wonder if there is a connection between the biocide that ruptures the gut of the insect and leaky gut syndrome in humans??? After all if the biocide is in the corn genes, anyone eating a GMO corn product is ingesting that biocide, and the more you eat/drink, the more you ingest.

Note: I've never read anything about this, I'm putting 1+1 together and I could be totally wrong about it so don't believe it as gospel truth, just a musing on my part.

Bob
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  #8   ^
Old Tue, Aug-25-20, 13:13
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Ms Arielle Ms Arielle is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Bob-a-rama
HFCS became popular when the US Government decided to spend $4B per year on price supports for the sugar industry, making the US consumer pay the highest prices for sugar in the world and the sugar corporations some of the richest in the world.

One thing I know about US corn is that there is an insecticide edited in the genes of the corn. The insect eats the GMO corn, and its intestines rupture, killing the insect.

Insecticides are simply biocides, and kill everything. The dose for an insect is simply much less than one for a human.

So I wonder if there is a connection between the biocide that ruptures the gut of the insect and leaky gut syndrome in humans??? After all if the biocide is in the corn genes, anyone eating a GMO corn product is ingesting that biocide, and the more you eat/drink, the more you ingest.

Note: I've never read anything about this, I'm putting 1+1 together and I could be totally wrong about it so don't believe it as gospel truth, just a musing on my part.

Bob


Interesting musings.
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  #9   ^
Old Tue, Aug-25-20, 15:54
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Kristine Kristine is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Ms Arielle
Holy Cow!!! One out of THREE !!! (...)
Why is fatty liver not verified by primaries?
Good question. One of the LC docs I follow on twitter - I'm pretty sure it was Dr Brian Lenskes of the LC MDs podcast - just recently mentioned that liver fat is so prevalent, it's not even being noted by radiologists when they're dictating their reports. He had to ask his radiology colleagues to do so!

I can't find a source for this, but I've also seen it mentioned that NAFLD has recently passed alcoholism as the most common cause of liver cirrhosis.

Let that sink in.
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  #10   ^
Old Tue, Aug-25-20, 16:11
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WereBear WereBear is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Bob-a-rama
Note: I've never read anything about this, I'm putting 1+1 together and I could be totally wrong about it so don't believe it as gospel truth, just a musing on my part.

Bob


I find it plausible because so many people have trouble with gluten in the US or Canada, and then in Italy, which does not allow GMO wheat; it doesn't happen.

Is it the gluten... or the Round Up?

Weed-killing chemical found in pasta, cereal and cookies sold in Canada: study
https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/weed-...study-1.4086615
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  #11   ^
Old Wed, Aug-26-20, 01:09
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s93uv3h s93uv3h is offline
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Great reading! Leaky gut and fatty liver and low carb has been on my radar for a while now. What always comes to mind is how doctors used to call patients liars when they started to come in in droves with liver problems and the docs asked them if they drank - and most said no.

Fatty liver disease

...At least two studies, one from Duke University, and one from Cambridge University have shown that reducing carbohydrate consumption and increasing saturated fat intake helps the liver shed excess fat in as little as three days.

^ The Duke University study link used to be active, the Cambridge study link still is.

And I did find this: DIABETES RESEARCHERS FIND SWITCH FOR FATTY LIVER DISEASE 5-18-18

from above ^

Working with Duke colleague Mark Herman, the researchers also found that a high-fructose diet (like drinking a lot of sugary soda), “creates an imbalance in the levels of the kinase and phosphatase as part of a larger program that promotes fat accumulation in the liver,” White said. Kinase activity goes up, phosphatase activity goes down -- more bad guy, less good guy -- leading to more liver fat and poorer metabolic health.
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  #12   ^
Old Wed, Aug-26-20, 11:48
Zei Zei is offline
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Something else to keep in mind is once fat is in the liver, choline is required in order to transport it out. Since eggs (yolks major source of choline, beef liver as well) became shunned during the era of fat/cholesterol fear many people are now choline deficient. Chris Masterjohn has more on this: https://chrismasterjohnphd.com/blog...r-and-egg-yolks
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  #13   ^
Old Wed, Aug-26-20, 13:44
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Ms Arielle Ms Arielle is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Kristine
Good question. One of the LC docs I follow on twitter - I'm pretty sure it was Dr Brian Lenskes of the LC MDs podcast - just recently mentioned that liver fat is so prevalent, it's not even being noted by radiologists when they're dictating their reports. He had to ask his radiology colleagues to do so!

I can't find a source for this, but I've also seen it mentioned that NAFLD has recently passed alcoholism as the most common cause of liver cirrhosis.

Let that sink in.



This is CRAZY !!

AND THIS IS MORE CRAZY !!
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  #14   ^
Old Wed, Aug-26-20, 15:58
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deirdra deirdra is offline
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Also, didn't Snackwells and other processed treats start using and promoting fructose instead of sugar because it doesn't raise BG like glucose+sucrose? Thus giving those who monitor BG a false sense of security. It doesn't surprise me that fatty liver disease is on the rise. My 80 yr-old T2 diabetic and processed-carb-loving aunt has it despite being a teetotaler for the last 60 years and has been accused of lying about her drinking habits for years. She does like eggs, but I doubt her doctor told her to eat them.
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  #15   ^
Old Thu, Aug-27-20, 07:18
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Calianna Calianna is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by deirdra
Also, didn't Snackwells and other processed treats start using and promoting fructose instead of sugar because it doesn't raise BG like glucose+sucrose? Thus giving those who monitor BG a false sense of security. It doesn't surprise me that fatty liver disease is on the rise. My 80 yr-old T2 diabetic and processed-carb-loving aunt has it despite being a teetotaler for the last 60 years and has been accused of lying about her drinking habits for years. She does like eggs, but I doubt her doctor told her to eat them.

I remember reading about how fructose didn't raise blood sugar, although I don't recall that information being associated with Snackwells, just some general information I heard about somewhere. But that was back before the internet - might have just been in some little newspaper article.



Since my blood sugar problem was that my blood sugar would drop like a rock after eating starch or sugar, when I heard that fructose didn't raise blood sugar, I started intentionally looking for foods that mentioned fructose in the ingredients instead of sugar. At some point, I started seeing a lot of foods that had high fructose corn syrup in them - so thought those would be ok too. I remember also hearing somewhere that honey had fructose in it - so I also started using honey as much as possible as a substitute for sugar. Of course I had no idea that all that fructose would inevitably cause even more problems than regular sugar did. I might have been able to avoid so many problems if google had existed back then.



Back in the 70's, I remember the little packages of cookies and candies in the diabetic treat section of grocery stores - might have been Estee brand. They were awful in comparison to regular cookies, but I tried them because they were labeled as sugar free, but I remember at some point that their ingredients included fructose.


At any rate, it was when I started looking for foods that had fructose or HFCS that I started gaining weight, but it was still difficult to pinpoint what was causing it. I knew that when I was eating the hypoglycemia diet in the 70's, I didn't eat starch or sugar, but by the mid-80's, I was looking for fructose instead of sugar in the ingredients lists, and also falling for the supposed health properties of whole grains too. By the early 2000's, I was a complete mess.
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