Thu, Aug-09-18, 02:17
Could a Keto diet increase the risk of diabetes?
9 August, 2018
'Keto diets' could increase diabetes risk
So-called ketogenic diets could have unintended health effects by increasing the risk of Type 2 diabetes.
Ketogenic diets, which involve eating very low levels of carbohydrates and high levels of fat, could cause an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes according to new research.
A study published in the Journal of Physiology raises questions about whether ketogenic diets could be dangerous for those following them.
Type 2 diabetes is an increasingly common challenge in modern societies, and its cause is still not fully understood.
Ketogenic diets are named because they intend to put the body into a metabolic state where it is fuelled by metabolising fat rather than through glycolysis-the process of extracting energy from glucose.
A side-effect of ketogenic diets discovered by the researchers is that it hampers the process for controlling blood sugar levels, and creates insulin resistance.
When the liver is unable to respond to normal levels of insulin to control blood sugar, this could prompt an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes.
Researchers at ETH Zurich and the University Children's Hospital Zurich discovered the side-effects by feeding mice two different kinds of diet.
Christian Wolfrum, one of the corresponding authors on the paper said: "Diabetes is one of the biggest health issues we face.
"Although ketogenic diets are known to be healthy, our findings indicate that there may be an increased risk of insulin resistance with this type of diet that may lead to Type 2 diabetes.
"The next step is to try to identify the mechanism for this effect and to address whether this is a physiological adaptation.
"Our hypothesis is that when fatty acids are metabolised, their products might have important signalling roles to play in the brain."
Tim Spector, professor of genetic epidemiology at Kings College London, told Sky News: "This study is a reminder that any extreme restriction diet can cause unforeseen problems."
Professor Spector noted though that it was based on a study in mice: "Humans are omnivores and benefit from a wide variety of foods, and restricting any one group will usually cause us problems longterm.
"Many people are on carb restricted diets which limits our plant and fibre intakes, with bad effects on our gut health."
"Ketogenic diets are proving to be an amazing treatment for childhood epilepsy for reasons we don't fully understand, and is being tried in other brain disorders, and many people with Type 2 diabetes have come off their medications by cutting out most carbohydrates with the help of their doctor.
The Journal of Physiology
8 August, 2018
Short‐term feeding of a ketogenic diet induces more severe hepatic insulin resistance than a obesogenic high‐fat diet
A ketogenic diet is known to lead to weight loss and is considered metabolically healthy; however there are conflicting reports on its effect on hepatic insulin sensitivity.
KD fed animals appear metabolically healthy in the fasted state after 3 days of dietary challenge, whereas obesogenic high‐fat diet (HFD) fed animals show elevated insulin levels.
A glucose challenge reveals that both KD and HFD fed animals are glucose intolerant.
Glucose intolerance correlates with increased lipid oxidation and lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER); however, all animals respond to glucose injection with an increase in RER.
Hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamps with double tracer show that the effect of KD is a result of hepatic insulin resistance and increased glucose output but not impaired glucose clearance or tissue glucose uptake in other tissues.
Despite being a relevant healthcare issue and heavily investigated, the aetiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is still incompletely understood. It is well established that increased endogenous glucose production (EGP) leads to a progressive increase in glucose levels, causing insulin resistance and eventual loss of glucose homeostasis. The consumption of high carbohydrate, high‐fat, western style diet (HFD) is linked to the development of T2D and obesity, whereas the consumption of a low carbohydrate, high‐fat, ketogenic diet (KD) is considered healthy. However, several days of carbohydrate restriction are known to cause selective hepatic insulin resistance. In the present study, we compare the effects of short‐term HFD and KD feeding on glucose homeostasis in mice. We show that, even though KD fed animals appear to be healthy in the fasted state, they exhibit decreased glucose tolerance to a greater extent than HFD fed animals. Furthermore, we show that this effect originates from blunted suppression of hepatic glucose production by insulin, rather than impaired glucose clearance and tissue glucose uptake. These data suggest that the early effects of HFD consumption on EGP may be part of a normal physiological response to increased lipid intake and oxidation, and that systemic insulin resistance results from the addition of dietary glucose to EGP‐derived glucose.
Last edited by Demi : Thu, Aug-09-18 at 02:27.