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Old Sun, Jul-20-14, 18:39
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JLx JLx is offline
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Posts: 3,199
Plan: High protein, lower fat
Stats: 000/000/145 Female 66
BF:276, 255 hi wts
Progress: 0%
Location: Michigan U.P., USA

Some interesting excerpts from the Hormonal Obesity Theory of Dr. Fung:

One of the keys to high insulin levels lies in insulin resistance. To start the Hormonal Obesity series – click here. http://intensivedietarymanagement.c...onal-obesity-1/

Insulin resistance leads to high insulin levels. It also appears that high levels of insulin also leads to insulin resistance in a vicious cycle. How does the body normally defend against insulin resistance?

High levels of hormone by themselves cannot cause resistance. After all, think about the previous post’s experiment with constant infusions of physiologic levels of insulin. You might ask yourself this question. If normal levels of insulin can cause insulin resistance, why don’t we all eventually develop insulin resistance?

The answer lies in how hormones are secreted in the body. Hormones are always always always secreted in a pulsatile fashion. Always. Whether we are talking about cortisol, insulin, growth hormone, parathyroid hormone or any other hormone in the human body, they are released in pulses. ...

Most of the time, hormone levels are low. Every so often, a brief pulse of hormone (thyroid, parathyroid, growth, insulin – whatever) comes along. After it passes, levels are very low again.

By cycling low and high levels, the body never gets a chance to adapt. There is never a chance to develop the resistance because the pulse of hormone is gone before this develops. ...

The circadian pulses of insulin prevents the development of insulin resistance. However, the situation changes when we are constantly exposed to insulin. ...

In the normal state insulin is released only occasionally, and this prevents the development of resistance. ...

Over time, the insulin resistance leads to higher insulin levels to ‘overcome’ this resistance. High levels alone do not lead to resistance. There are 2 requirements for resistance – high hormonal levels and constant stimulus. ...

A question often comes up here. If all cells are resistant to the effect of the insulin, then the higher level of insulin should have no effect overall. The answer is that insulin has different effects on different parts of the body – the main parts being the muscle, the liver and the brain. Each part has a certain sensitivity or resistance to insulin, and this does not affect the other.

Exercise, for instance will increase the sensitivity of muscles to insulin but has no effect on insulin sensitivity in the liver or brain. Hepatic (liver) insulin resistance which develops from fatty liver does not affect insulin resistance in the brain or muscle. When we ingest excess carbohydrates, we develop hepatic insulin resistance. This increases the overall insulin levels. However, the brain has normal insulin sensitivity.

In the brain, we have increased insulin levels acting on normally sensitive receptors resulting in an increased insulin effect. The effect is to increase the body set weight which will cause you to gain fat. Ultimately, it is the brain which ties together all the effects of hunger and energy expenditure. That is how we gain weight.

Insulin resistance requires 2 things.

1. High levels – a low fat, high carbohydrate diet – leads to high insulin levels (What to Eat)

2. Persistance of levels – eating all the time (When to Eat)

It turns out that weight gain depends on both equally. It turns out that it is no more complicated than this – “If you eat all the time, you will gain weight”. The dietary changes we have made since the 1970s have thoroughly prepared us for insulin resistance. This, of course leads exactly to diabesity.

The answers, then are really very simple. Eat 3 meals a day. No snacking. Eat at a table for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Do not eat anywhere else. There are only 2 things to be fixed here. What to Eat. When to Eat. http://intensivedietarymanagement.c...l-obesity-xiii/

Other than in Bernstein's book, the "when to eat" seems to be often overlooked, with respect to obesity if not diabetes. Eating too frequently has been one of my downfalls, especially back in the day.

My mother is 88, not diabetic or obese and eats sugar, bread, processed foods but one thing she does do is not snack. She eats regular meals by the clock and the sweets and stuff are not to excess. Dr. Fung made the point in a later part of the series that people back in the 60s and early 70s ate bread and Oreos but they had regular meals that alternated them equally between the "fed state (insulin dominant)" and the "fasted state (insulin deficient)" and despite what they were eating because of when they were eating it, they did not develop insulin resistance and subsequent diabesity.

Now everyone is advised to eat more small meals, diabetics especially in what again is the exact wrong advice. I think that even as a low carber sometimes I have been guilty of eating too often (despite knowing better, of course).
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