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  #1   ^
Old Thu, Oct-26-17, 12:58
Verbena Verbena is offline
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Default Chinese scientists create genetically modified low fat pigs

Just what the world needs: less lard! Hmm, no, I think I'll stick with my locally raised, pastured pigs.

http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt...ed-low-fat-pigs

Here's something that may sound like a contradiction in terms: low-fat pigs.

But that's exactly what Chinese scientists have created using new genetic engineering techniques.

In a paper published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the scientists report that they have created 12 healthy pigs with about 24 percent less body fat than normal pigs.

The scientists created low-fat pigs in the hopes of providing pig farmers with animals that would be less expensive to raise and would suffer less in cold weather.

"This is a big issue for the pig industry," says Jianguo Zhao of the Institute of Zoology at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, who led the research. "It's pretty exciting."


The genetically modified low-fat piglets
Jianguo Zhao
The animals have less body fat because they have a gene that allows them to regulate their body temperatures better by burning fat. That could save farmers millions of dollars in heating and feeding costs, as well as prevent millions of piglets from suffering and dying in cold weather.

"They could maintain their body temperature much better, which means that they could survive better in the cold weather," Zhao said in an interview.

Other researchers call the advance significant.

"This is a paper that is technologically quite important," says R. Michael Roberts, a professor in the department of animal sciences at the University of Missouri, who edited the paper for the scientific journal. "It demonstrates a way that you can improve the welfare of animals at the same as also improving the product from those animals the meat."
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  #2   ^
Old Thu, Oct-26-17, 13:13
khrussva's Avatar
khrussva khrussva is online now
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Plan: My own - < 30 net carbs
Stats: 440/208/210 Male 5' 11"
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Default

Who needs genetic engineering to keep those chilled little piggy's warm? Haven't the Chinese ever heard of pigs in a blanket? Sorry. I could not help myself.
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  #3   ^
Old Thu, Oct-26-17, 15:36
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teaser teaser is offline
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Plan: ketosis/IF
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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK216532/

Quote:
Close to 90% of the barrows and gilts marketed in the United States have more separable fat than separable lean in their carcasses. Therefore, swine producers should put greater emphasis on raising meat-type pigs. Since carcass characteristics are highly heritable, they can be improved quickly by selection programs. The average estimates of heritability are as follows: carcass length, 56%; carcass backfat thickness, 38%; yield of lean cuts, 29%; and length of hind leg, 40%.


Pigs are already producing more fat than people are eating. If this results in more affordable pork, I don't know that it's a bad thing. In another article about this story, it was mentioned that other animals tolerate cold better than pigs do--it seems likely that this is a result of us breeding out their ability to stay warm outside, when we bred them to be fatter in the first place.
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  #4   ^
Old Thu, Oct-26-17, 18:08
M Levac M Levac is offline
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Default

If there's a missing gene, it's also missing from fat cells' DNA. Take lipoprotein lipase for example. There must be a gene to make that protein, it exists in all cells, but acts differently in fat cells than in all other cells. Same for that missing gene. Hormones are the same. For example growth hormone acts to increase uptake of nutrients (and growth thereof) in all cells, while it simultaneously acts to increase release of fat in fat cells.

I'm gonna agree with Teaser on that. We likely bred that gene out. Consider mammals that are adapted to cold weather, they must obviously regulate their body temp very well, yet are extremely fat by comparison. But pigs are not adapted to cold weather a priori. Once we began breeding them to be fatter, we just chose the fattest ones to reproduce without knowing anything about genes. Yet, in doing so, whatever gene(s) determined fat tissue size was bred out. If this gene was indeed the same one that regulated body temp, there's be two simultaneous effects - more fat, less body temp regulation.

This is artificial selection, same as natural selection, but with an arbitrary selection criteria. This means for a generational change to occur, the mutation (or the gene or absence of gene) must be already present. In this case, there's several things that can determine fat tissue size. We know of several hormones and enzymes just for humans. But when the only thing we look at is fat tissue size, we can't possible know which one of those things will be bred in or out, depending. So, for this species, we bred out the body temp regulation gene, just because it was the most effective as well for fat tissue size.

Check wild pigs and compare.

Same for meat beef vs milk cows. We bred one for meat and fat, the other for milk. The one for meat and fat produces almost no milk by comparison. The one for milk is extremely lean by comparison. We didn't choose to make them produce less milk or to be extremely lean, it's just that the genes that express fatness and leanness also express milk production. It must, because in order to produce milk, fat tissue must release fat that goes into milk production. I.e., the lipoprotein lipase logic again.

The point is their logic about the mechanism of action on fat cells is flawed. They're stuck on CICO in spite of having delved deep in DNA where everything biological happens.

Oh Jebus. I think I figured out a way to figure out progressive lipodystrophy. Check the fat ass goats. They've been bred that way. Well, that's exactly what happens to us when we get that disorder. Must be the same or similar gene.
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  #5   ^
Old Thu, Oct-26-17, 21:12
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Meme#1 Meme#1 is offline
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Years ago when I was learning about how to raise cattle from my father there was something that always stuck in my head. He once told me that if a cow from the south was brought up north where it is very cold, that it would starve to death. But you can bring a cow from up north to the south. I asked, why is that Daddy? His answer was that cows in the south have 2-3 stomachs and the cows up north have 5-6 stomachs. Thus I presume it allows the cows up north to take in more feed to regulate their body temps so that they won't starve and then freeze to death.
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  #6   ^
Old Thu, Oct-26-17, 22:10
Verbena Verbena is offline
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Don't ALL cows have 4 stomachs? Just curious. I've never raised cows, or known anyone who does.
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  #7   ^
Old Thu, Oct-26-17, 22:13
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Meme#1 Meme#1 is offline
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Yes, all cows have multiple stomachs.
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  #8   ^
Old Sun, Oct-29-17, 18:54
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Dodger Dodger is offline
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We take lots of animals from their natural environment and raise them where the animals have severe problems. Take cattle as an example:

http://www.angusjournal.com/articlepdf/1100aj_tybar.pdf
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  #9   ^
Old Sun, Oct-29-17, 19:15
Verbena Verbena is offline
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The article seems to be referencing Angus mostly, a Scottish breed taken to the high altitudes of the Rockies. I wonder if the Swiss brown cattle, which have been on the Alps "forever", and have had a longer time to acclimate themselves, suffer similarly?
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  #10   ^
Old Sun, Oct-29-17, 21:00
Meme#1's Avatar
Meme#1 Meme#1 is offline
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In Texas 100% Angus can't be raised because they have too much hair for our summer heat so we crossbreed them with Brahman which is an extremely heat tolerant breed and the Angus because of low birth weight calves and which cross-breeding creates a Brangus.
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  #11   ^
Old Mon, Oct-30-17, 17:41
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deirdra deirdra is offline
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Black Angus cattle do very well in the Canadian Rockies, but most are at 4000-5000'.
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  #12   ^
Old Tue, Oct-31-17, 07:01
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WereBear WereBear is offline
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Here in the ADK mountains, Brown Swiss do very well. As do goats and alpacas.

It took a loooooong time for animals to adapt, and we don't have much of a track record for tinkering properly.

Besides which, haven't they gotten the memo? The Lipid Hypothesis is BUNK.
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  #13   ^
Old Tue, Oct-31-17, 09:46
Bonnie OFS Bonnie OFS is offline
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Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by Meme#1
Years ago when I was learning about how to raise cattle from my father there was something that always stuck in my head. He once told me that if a cow from the south was brought up north where it is very cold, that it would starve to death. But you can bring a cow from up north to the south. I asked, why is that Daddy? His answer was that cows in the south have 2-3 stomachs and the cows up north have 5-6 stomachs. Thus I presume it allows the cows up north to take in more feed to regulate their body temps so that they won't starve and then freeze to death.


I think your father was pulling your leg.
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  #14   ^
Old Wed, Nov-01-17, 11:16
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Ms Arielle Ms Arielle is offline
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ROFL

Anyone heard of lard hogs??? In my old animal husbandry book, the photos are amazing of well fed, very fat hogs. Truely, they were bred in the years BEFORE vegetable oils came into the market.

During the last century, the hogs were bred with the emphasis to decrease the body fat, producing a much slimmer pig for market.

Pot belly pigs remind me of the old style hog. ( I did consider raising these at one time.)
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  #15   ^
Old Wed, Nov-01-17, 11:21
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Ms Arielle Ms Arielle is offline
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Plan: atkins
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Default

As for the cow moving north.....

Takes a couple generations for chickens moved from the south to acclimate to the North. I have birds hatched in the South and raised here in the NOrth....

Cows have the same number of compartments, north or south, I dont think pa was being literal.

I have some sheep that are better grazers than others; some chickens breeds that are better foragers than others, and some breeds put on the fat and meat faster than others......all in the genes!
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