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  #1   ^
Old Mon, Sep-18-17, 03:36
teaser's Avatar
teaser teaser is offline
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Default Salt accused of causing diabetes

Quote:
Sodium (salt) intake is associated with a risk of developing type 2 diabetes

Sodium intake may be linked to an increased risk of developing both type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) says new research being presented at this year's annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) in Lisbon, Portugal (11-15 Sept).

The main source of sodium in the diet is through salt. Salt (sodium chloride) is 40% sodium, so that for every 2.5g of salt consumed, 1g is sodium. Previous research* has suggested that excessive salt consumption may increase the risk of developing T2D, possibly through a direct effect on insulin resistance, and/or by promoting high blood pressure and weight gain.

LADA is a form of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in which the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas are destroyed by the body's own immune system, but unlike typical T1D it develops very slowly, sometimes over a period of years. This, together with it appearing in later in adulthood, can lead to it being mistakenly diagnosed as T2D.

This study was conducted by Dr Bahareh Rasouli of The Institute of Environmental Medicine (IMM), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, and colleagues from institutions in both Sweden and Finland, and aimed to discover whether there is a link between sodium intake and the risk of developing T2D or LADA.

The team used data from a Swedish population-based study of risk factors for LADA and T2D, and compared the 355 and 1136 cases of each respectively with a matched group of 1379 individuals from the wider population acting as controls. Dietary intake was recorded using a food questionnaire and used to calculate the daily consumption of calories, nutrients, and sodium. The influence of genetics on diabetes risk was also considered, with patients being divided into 'high risk or 'other' according to their HLA genotype. Adjustments were made to account for differences in risk factors including age, sex, BMI, smoking, physical activity, family history of diabetes, alcohol, total energy, and potassium intake.

The study found that sodium intake was associated with an average 43% increase in the risk of developing T2D for each extra gram of sodium (equivalent to 2.5 extra grams of salt) consumed per day. When dividing participants into three groups of sodium consumption (low under 2.4g; medium 2.4-3.15g; high above 3.15g), the group with highest consumption had a 58% higher risk of developing T2D compared with the lowest consumption group. However, since salt is only 40% sodium by weight, for actual salt consumption the low consumption group is 6.0 grams and under; the medium consumption group is 6.0-7.9g; and the high group is above 7.9 grams per day.

The effect of sodium intake on the risk of developing LADA was even greater, with a 73% rise for each gram of sodium consumed per day. Those LADA patients with high risk HLA genotypes whose sodium intake was classed as 'high' (over 3.15 g/day) were almost four times more likely to develop the disease than those consuming the lowest (under 2.4g/day).

The authors conclude: "We confirm an association between sodium intake and type 2 diabetes" and that "high sodium intake may be a risk factor for LADA, especially in carriers of high risk HLA genotypes." They suggest that "These findings may have important implications in the primary prevention of diabetes with adult onset."


https://www.sciencedaily.com/releas...70914210621.htm

Quote:
Those LADA patients with high risk HLA genotypes whose sodium intake was classed as 'high' (over 3.15 g/day) were almost four times more likely to develop the disease than those consuming the lowest (under 2.4g/day).


Four times as likely sounds like a strong correlation, good enough that causation is likely. But I once saw a study showing omega 6 fatty acids correlated with six times as much glaucoma, but only after correcting for a number of things, without the corrections, there was very little correlation. Also if there's a very high correlation of salt with something else, say a generally poor diet, the correlation to salt can be non-random without being causative. For years I never salted my food, all that means is that homemade food can't compete with commercial food.
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  #2   ^
Old Mon, Sep-18-17, 10:14
GRB5111's Avatar
GRB5111 GRB5111 is offline
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This from the epidemiological study:

Quote:
Dietary intake was recorded using a food questionnaire and used to calculate the daily consumption of calories, nutrients, and sodium.


and this:

Quote:
When dividing participants into three groups of sodium consumption (low under 2.4g; medium 2.4-3.15g; high above 3.15g), the group with highest consumption had a 58% higher risk of developing T2D compared with the lowest consumption group. However, since salt is only 40% sodium by weight, for actual salt consumption the low consumption group is 6.0 grams and under; the medium consumption group is 6.0-7.9g; and the high group is above 7.9 grams per day.


The statement from the last quote in bold, that's a lot of salt! The AHA's current recommendation is 2.3g of sodium equivalent to 1 teaspoon of salt per day. Results from a questionnaire from a study of rigorously applied categories that are based on fact??? Information like this is irresponsibly reported until we can apply RCTs that remove the inaccuracies upon which this study is based. That would be an expensive RCT, which is why we need to find a creative way to get to a salt consumption recommendation that makes sense.

The elephant in the room that is never addressed in epidemiological studies is the following: what else was consumed with the sodium that may possibly have had an equal or greater influence on developing diabetes than sodium?

I salt my food. To what degree am I putting my health at risk? (rhetorical question)
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  #3   ^
Old Mon, Sep-18-17, 10:25
teaser's Avatar
teaser teaser is offline
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Sounds high, but the difference between groups is pretty small, 1.9 grams more salt a day is supposed to be giving people diabetes?

There are old post-WWII studies looking at salt intake in some parts of Japan and India, where it was as high as 24 or 25 grams per day! I usually don't use exclamation points, makes me feel a little manic. People have worked on blaming stomach cancer and stroke rates in Japan on salt intake, somehow they missed the type II diabetes epidemic back then, most likely because it didn't actually happen.
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  #4   ^
Old Tue, Sep-19-17, 04:37
M Levac M Levac is offline
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I don't believe a word of it. Salt is essential. Deficiency is real. The only possible way to avoid a deficiency is to eat too much salt. First Law: Can't create out of thin air. Therefore, too much is the only way to make sure there's enough. Physiology obeys First Law in all kinds of ways. The blood contains more than needed. Storage organs contain more than needed. We eat more than we need at every meal. The idea that consuming too much of something essential causes disease is absurd when that's precisely how disease is avoided in the first place.

Maybe we're talking about a toxic dose of salt, but I doubt it. It's very hard to eat a toxic dose of salt, whether intentionally or not. So we're talking about a couple grams of salt over a couple decades. But in fact we're talking about a couple grams of salt in one day. 2 grams. And it's not 2 grams versus 0, it's 6 grams versus 7.9 grams. There's already 6 grams being metabolized, how is 2 more grams gonna make any difference? If we can handle 6 grams just fine, and if we have to eat more to obey First Law, physiology can certainly handle that extra 2 grams.

On the other hand, what about carbs? This ain't grams, it's hundreds of grams. And carbs ain't essential. I'm just throwing this out there. What if salt is needed to deal with all the carbs? The more carbs, the more salt. We'd be more hungry for salt if we ate more carbs. Salted stuff would taste much better, we'd go for it when offered, we'd look for it when shopping, we'd eat it at breakfast lunch and dinner and snacks and when we wake up at night hungry.

Here's the thing with carbs. Absolute daily requirement is 0, yet we are told to eat at least 300 grams per day for a lifetime. This ain't 6 vs 7.9, it's 0 vs 300.

Here's the other thing with carbs. Even if we could handle 300g/day, there's the insulin, we can't handle too much of that no way no how. Insulin is the central regulator of pretty much everything. Carbs disrupt insulin, therefore carbs disrupt everything. Can't blame salt for that.
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  #5   ^
Old Tue, Sep-19-17, 06:42
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WereBear WereBear is offline
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I see it as another instance of the near-constant "red meat is death" stories, when you drill down they don't mean beef, they mean processed sandwich meats, and what always goes with that is, obviously, bread... but they never claim bread will kill you.

Though it can.
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  #6   ^
Old Tue, Sep-19-17, 09:50
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Merpig Merpig is offline
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Ho hum. Another day, another culprit to blame on very flimsy evidence.
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  #7   ^
Old Tue, Sep-19-17, 10:08
Zei Zei is offline
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People seem to be scrounging all over the place to find something to blame the rise in diabetes/obesity on (salt, red meat, dietary fat that humans ate plenty of before the rise) while the white elephant in the room of sugar and carbs just quietly sits there feeling ignored.
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  #8   ^
Old Tue, Sep-19-17, 13:48
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mike_d mike_d is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Zei
People seem to be scrounging all over the place to find something to blame the rise in diabetes/obesity on (salt, red meat, dietary fat that humans ate plenty of before the rise) while the white elephant in the room of sugar and carbs just quietly sits there feeling ignored.
Yeah, no one who values their career standing or credibility will touch that sacred cow fed-up on "healthy grains"
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  #9   ^
Old Sat, Sep-23-17, 10:43
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Calianna Calianna is offline
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I couldn't help but notice how there are now 3 threads in quick succession on here about what is currently being accused of causing diabetes:

Red Meat linked to Diabetes
Salt accused of causing diabetes
artificial sweeteners may promote diabetes

What next?! I can see the nightmare news stories now...

Quote:
"Breathing linked to diabetes!!!"

Scientists have not yet determined why, but a recent meta-analysis of 1500 studies carried out over 32 years in 20 countries has shown that 100% of those diagnosed with diabetes reported that they breathe air which contains oxygen.

"We're looking into this shocking statistic." said Dr. Pseudo-Scientist, spokesman for the analysis which recently appeared in several highly respected medical journals.

"It appears that every single one of the diabetics in this meta-analysis were breathing oxygen. This is of serious concern to us in the scientific analysis industry, because oxygen seems to be everywhere in the atmosphere of the planet."

When asked what any individual can do to prevent the development of diabetes, Dr. Pseudo-Scientist said "We're not quite sure yet, but it appears that everyone on the planet is at increased risk of developing diabetes, simply because of all the oxygen in our atmosphere."

Elaborating on where science is headed in the fight against the worsening diabetes epidemic, he has no answers yet, but assures this writer that "Further studies will need to be conducted, so thank goodness we have so much funding available from such wonderful food producers as Nestle, Monsanto, and Coca Cola. There are several pharmaceutical companies who will also be actively working to develop medications which everyone on the planet an take to counteract the diabetic causing effects of breathing. Until we have conclusive information on exactly how how breathing causes diabetes, we're just urging everyone to continue to cut down on consumption all animal products, including fats and meats, and also to avoid all added salt, as well as artificial sweeteners. Everyone should also increase their consumption of grains, and concentrate on eating starches and sugars, as none of those have ever been linked to the development of diabetes in any studies we've conducted. The easiest way to do this is to check every package of food for the new 'diabetes safe' label, and make those foods the mainstay of your diet."
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  #10   ^
Old Sat, Sep-23-17, 10:48
GRB5111's Avatar
GRB5111 GRB5111 is offline
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Plan: Ketogenic (LCHFKD)
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Very appropriate and true . . .
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  #11   ^
Old Mon, Sep-25-17, 08:31
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Nancy LC Nancy LC is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Merpig
Ho hum. Another day, another culprit to blame on very flimsy evidence.

Exactly! Guess what kinds of salty foods people eat that causes diabetes? Carby ones! Chips, fries, and some are even sweet and salty like kettle corn.
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  #12   ^
Old Mon, Sep-25-17, 11:27
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zoogirl zoogirl is offline
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OMG, this is fabulous, you just made my day...pass it on, ttyl
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  #13   ^
Old Mon, Sep-25-17, 11:45
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doreen T doreen T is offline
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dihydrogen monoxide is lookin' mighty suspect too ...
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  #14   ^
Old Mon, Sep-25-17, 12:38
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SuzyQ0902 SuzyQ0902 is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Nancy LC
Exactly! Guess what kinds of salty foods people eat that causes diabetes? Carby ones! Chips, fries, and some are even sweet and salty like kettle corn.


That's exactly where my thoughts went.
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  #15   ^
Old Mon, Sep-25-17, 14:55
Zei Zei is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by doreen T
dihydrogen monoxide is lookin' mighty suspect too ...

Nooooo!!! I just drank several cups of that today!!!
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