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  #1   ^
Old Thu, Mar-16-17, 04:57
teaser's Avatar
teaser teaser is online now
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Default Probiotics only beneficial if you need them

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releas...70314111102.htm

Quote:
Probiotics may not always be a silver bullet for better health

Researchers have investigated the impact of probiotics on gut health and cognitive function. In rats fed on 'junk' diets, the probiotic medicine was able to significantly impact microbial composition in the gut and prevent memory loss. But for rats on a healthy diet, the probiotic did little to influence microbial composition and actually impaired memory function.

To combat the effects of a poor diet, probiotics may be just the thing. However, surprising new research from UNSW suggests probiotics are much less effective when taken alongside a balanced diet, and could even impair certain aspects of memory.

Researchers from UNSW Medicine studied the impact of a commonly used probiotic on the gut health and cognitive function of rats, which were fed either a healthy diet or a "cafeteria diet" high in saturated fat and sugar.

In fat rats with "grossly dysregulated" gut health, thanks to being fed junk food, probiotics positively changed the bacterial make-up in their digestive tract and benefitted brain function, preventing spatial memory loss.

But for rats on a healthy diet, the probiotics had little impact on microbial diversity and actually impaired recognition memory. The team's results were published today in the journal Molecular Psychiatry.

"If you're eating really badly then probiotics might be helpful. But if you're already eating healthily, they may not be that beneficial," says Professor Margaret Morris, Head of Pharmacology at UNSW.

"We were surprised to find that, in the rats we were feeding a healthy diet, the probiotics actually resulted in some memory impairment with regards to object recognition.

"Although this study is looking at rats, I think the main takeaway message is that we need to exercise caution when we recommend that people take probiotics.

"It's very hard for us to say that they are definitively good or bad. Probiotics may offer a great opportunity to improve health so long as they are replacing the correct bacteria -- the challenge is accurately determining which beneficial microbes are absent."

Searching for a link between gut health and brain function

Western-style diets high in saturated fat and sugar have been consistently shown to have detrimental effects on the brain and cognitive function, and can "rapidly alter the composition and metabolic activity" of microbes in the gut, the researchers say.

Furthermore, there is an emerging body of literature that suggests gut bacteria can impact brain function. Studies of germ-free rodents and other animals on gut-disrupting antibiotics show that changing microbial communities can impair memory and cause anxiety-like behaviours.

Professor Morris and PhD student Jess Beilharz are investigating the effects of Western-style diets on brain function and gut bacteria. They suspected that by increasing microbial diversity in the gut, probiotics could combat behavioural changes and prevent memory impairment linked to poor diet.

The researchers pre-exposed groups of rats to either a low or high dose of the probiotic medicine for two weeks before their diet was changed from healthy "chow" to cafeteria-style food (including cookies, cakes and meat pies). This diet change lasted for 25 days.

Six groups of rats were studied according to the diet/probiotic dose: Chow-Control, Chow-Low Dose, Chow-High Dose; Cafeteria-control, Cafeteria-Low Dose, Cafeteria-High Dose. Afterwards the researchers examined the rats' faeces and dissected their brains.

Poor diets wreak havoc but probiotics help

In addition to being fatter, Professor Morris says the cafeteria diet "dramatically altered the microbiota" resulting in rats with much less microbial diversity in their gut.

"It also affected the expression of certain genes in the brain that are involved in 'neuroplasticity', which may be associated with memory impairment," says Morris. "And it turned down gut conversion of things that are known to be really beneficial to the brain, such as flavones and flavonoids, which are found in leafy green vegetables."

But these rats also saw the greatest health benefits from the probiotics. They increased the abundance of certain bacteria-types contained in the probiotic such as Streptococcus and Lactobacillus and other bacteria-types such as Butyrivibrio, which were decreased by the cafeteria diet. Furthermore, memory impairment was prevented.

Ongoing research in the Morris lab is investigating the impact of lifestyle measures such as exercise on gut microbiota and behaviour, and testing novel interventions.


Antibiotics can mess up an animal's gut biome, leading to weight gain etc. But given to an animal, say an ob/ob leptin-deficient mouse, that already has a crummy gut biome, and things are more likely to get better--which makes sense, disrupt a healthy gut biome, make things worse, disrupt an unhealthy gut biome, make things better.

Quote:
Gut microbiota modulation with norfloxacin and ampicillin enhances glucose tolerance in mice.

Membrez M1, Blancher F, Jaquet M, Bibiloni R, Cani PD, Burcelin RG, Corthesy I, MacÚ K, Chou CJ.
Author information
Abstract
Recent data suggest that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in fat accumulation. However, it is not clear whether gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. To assess this issue, we modulated gut microbiota via antibiotics administration in two different mouse models with insulin resistance. Results from dose-determination studies showed that a combination of norfloxacin and ampicillin, at a dose of 1 g/L, maximally suppressed the numbers of cecal aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in ob/ob mice. After a 2-wk intervention with the antibiotic combination, both ob/ob and diet-induced obese and insulin-resistant mice showed a significant improvement in fasting glycemia and oral glucose tolerance. The improved glycemic control was independent of food intake or adiposity because pair-fed ob/ob mice were as glucose intolerant as the control ob/ob mice. Reduced liver triglycerides and increased liver glycogen correlated with improved glucose tolerance in the treated mice. Concomitant reduction of plasma lipopolysaccharides and increase of adiponectin further supported the antidiabetic effects of the antibiotic treatment in ob/ob mice. In summary, modulation of gut microbiota ameliorated glucose tolerance of mice by altering the expression of hepatic and intestinal genes involved in inflammation and metabolism, and by changing the hormonal, inflammatory, and metabolic status of the host.
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  #2   ^
Old Thu, Mar-16-17, 08:08
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DelaneyLC DelaneyLC is offline
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wrong post
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  #3   ^
Old Thu, Mar-16-17, 09:56
Zei Zei is offline
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I wish people wouldn't lump saturated fat and sugar together when defining a poor diet. It's like putting spinach and tobacco together as a bad salad. I wonder how much of the fat in both the "healthy" chow and the "saturated" whatever it was fat they used was actually hydrogenated trans fats? In that case it really is a pretty poor diet in need of all the probiotic help it can get.
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  #4   ^
Old Thu, Mar-16-17, 10:09
Zei Zei is offline
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Quote:
diet was changed from healthy "chow" to cafeteria-style food (including cookies, cakes and meat pies).

Yeah, here we go. Not healthy saturated fat as we readers here think of (butter, real lard, coconut etc.) but cheap polyunsaturated seed oils (possibly hydrogenated) in commercial baked goods full of highly refined white flour and loads of sugar. Yuck!
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  #5   ^
Old Thu, Mar-16-17, 10:25
teaser's Avatar
teaser teaser is online now
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At least they're spelling out "fat and sugar," and not just calling it a "high fat diet." I'd like it better if they said "fat and sugar and starch," a high starch diet might be better than a high sugar diet, but once the sugar is in there, I don't think adding starch helps any. I guess I don't know that butter's any good for you once it's been used to make sugary fudge, either. Back when I ate carbs, I'd be more likely to over do it various pastries than with candy that's almost pure sugar. I guess everybody has their poison, though.
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Old Thu, Mar-16-17, 12:51
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WereBear WereBear is offline
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I am not impressed.

I take probiotics periodically, and if I need them... things improve. If things don't change, I stop.
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  #7   ^
Old Thu, Mar-16-17, 13:22
teaser's Avatar
teaser teaser is online now
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Plan: ketosis/IF
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I think that's pretty much the take home message, things don't improve unless there's room for improvement. A twenty something friend with twenty something energy tried a keto diet a while back, he wasn't impressed, he expected--what? To feel like he was twenty again?
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  #8   ^
Old Fri, Mar-17-17, 07:45
M Levac M Levac is offline
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Default

Age is irrelevant with regards to effects on physiology, methinks. I thought I was lean at twenty, but then I saw some seriously lean folks and I knew I wasn't lean. I was padded. Not fat, just apparently lean but still padded. At twenty, I already had twenty years of growing fatter. At forty, that's another twenty on top. Then I went low-carb.

Had I gone low-carb at twenty, the effect would have been almost imperceptible, but still there would have been an effect. Also, losing fat mass was only one of the effects, all other effects would also have occurred at twenty, but then at twenty I was blissfully ignorant of pretty much my entire existence, so I probably wouldn't have noticed.

Experience makes one acutely aware of any effect, however small or marginal. So, age is relevant with regards to perception of physiological effects.

That twenty something guy you know? Give him another twenty, let's see what he says then.

On the other hand, if there is no potential for improvement, there will be no improvement, or there will be a detriment. However, I believe low-carb is always better than pretty much any other diet, at any age, for anybody, in any circumstance, for any purpose. Rather, I see no reason why sugar would somehow become really healthful at, say, 5 years old, and then become really bad for ya at, say, 40 years old, hm?
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