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  #1   ^
Old Tue, Jan-17-17, 06:12
teaser's Avatar
teaser teaser is online now
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Default insulin and inflammation study

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Every meal triggers inflammation

When we eat, we do not just take in nutrients -- we also consume a significant quantity of bacteria. The body is faced with the challenge of simultaneously distributing the ingested glucose and fighting these bacteria. This triggers an inflammatory response that activates the immune systems of healthy individuals and has a protective effect, as doctors from the University and the University Hospital Basel have proven for the first time. In overweight individuals, however, this inflammatory response fails so dramatically that it can lead to diabetes.

It is well known that type 2 diabetes (or adult-onset diabetes) leads to chronic inflammation with a range of negative impacts. A number of clinical studies have therefore treated diabetes by impeding the over-production of a substance involved in this process, Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). In diabetes patients, this messenger substance triggers chronic inflammation and causes insulin-producing beta cells to die off.

Activation of the immune system

This inflammation does have some positive aspects, however, as was recently reported in the journal Nature Immunology by researchers from the Department of Biomedicine at the University and the University Hospital Basel. In healthy individuals, short-term inflammatory responses play an important role in sugar uptake and the activation of the immune system.

In their work, Professor Marc Donath, Head of the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism at the University Hospital Basel and his research team demonstrate that the number of macrophages (a type of immune cell) around the intestines increases during meal times. These so-called "scavenger cells" produce the messenger substance IL-1beta in varying amounts, depending on the concentration of glucose in the blood. This, in turn, stimulates insulin production in pancreatic beta cells. The insulin then causes the macrophages to increase IL-1beta production. Insulin and IL-1beta work together to regulate blood sugar levels, while the messenger substance IL-1beta ensures that the immune system is supplied with glucose and thus remains active.

Bacteria and nutrients

According to the researchers, this mechanism of the metabolism and immune system is dependent on the bacteria and nutrients that are ingested during meals. With sufficient nutrients, the immune system is able to adequately combat foreign bacteria. Conversely, when there is a lack of nutrients, the few remaining calories must be conserved for important life functions at the expense of an immune response. This may go some way towards explaining why infectious diseases occur more frequently in times of famine.


https://www.sciencedaily.com/releas...70116121912.htm


Quote:
This may go some way towards explaining why infectious diseases occur more frequently in times of famine.


This bit reminds me of this Junkfood Science blog post about calorie restriction in rhesus monkeys;

Quote:
As we know, whenever we hear a health statistic, the first question we should ask ourselves is how a statistic is defined. Definitions are everything. Only by reading critically can we begin to decipher the wordsmithing, the art of marketing. Read carefully what Dr. Weindruch said in his press release:

We have been able to show that caloric restriction can slow the aging process in a primate species. We observed that caloric restriction reduced the risk of developing an age-related disease by a factor of three and increased survival.
A stronger clue came from this quote in the press release:

There is a major effect of caloric restriction in increasing survival if you look at deaths due to the diseases of aging.


Quote:
The non-aging-related causes of death included monkeys who died while taking blood samples under anesthesia, from injuries or from infections, such as gastritis and endometriosis. These causes may not be aging-related as defined by the researchers, but they could realistically be adverse effects of prolonged calorie restrictions on the animalsí health, their immune system, ability to handle stress, physical agility, cognition or behavior.


Not that excessively low inflammation is likely to be much of a problem for most of us here. It is interesting that as deaths from infectious disease have fallen off--a failure of the immune defenses--inflammation and immune diseases seem to have taken off. I also wonder about the immune effects of IF, especially of the every other day fasting sort (24 hour dinner to dinner) in comparison to calorie restriction, even if the calories averaged out the same, the stimulus to the immune system should be very different.
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  #2   ^
Old Wed, Jan-18-17, 14:37
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WereBear WereBear is offline
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The flatworm study indicated it was carb, not calorie, restriction which made the magic happen.

Geneticist Cynthia Kenyon: Eat A Low-Carb Diet To Live Longer And Healthier

Anyway, that's my story and I'm sticking with it
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  #3   ^
Old Wed, Jan-18-17, 14:58
teaser's Avatar
teaser teaser is online now
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I think the sort of life extension we're talking about here is still speculative in humans--but the life shortening effects of insulin resistance and diabetes related diseases is not, so I guess I'm with you.
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Old Thu, Jan-19-17, 12:57
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WereBear WereBear is offline
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I find the study very interesting... but, perhaps, misguided?

Like, from all available evidence, diseases of civilization are diseases of chronic inflammation. That's the bottom line, as I see it.
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  #5   ^
Old Thu, Jan-19-17, 13:41
teaser's Avatar
teaser teaser is online now
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Plan: ketosis/IF
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I don't think that they're saying they aren't diseases of inflammation. The basic idea is that the immune system is stimulated by exposure to potentially infectious agents. Our greatest exposure to infectious agents is through the microorganisms in our guts. Famine decreases this exposure--so a weaker, less developed immune system leaves us more vulnerable if a pathogen does show up--it's sort of analagous to an inoculation, we practice on those less dangerous gut microbes. Or you could put it another way, and less exposure to microbes leaves us with an underdeveloped immune system. Just like when it's suggested that keeping kids too clean will leave them with an underdeveloped immune system. On the other hand, an overdeveloped or even just adequately developed immune system could leave us more vulnerable to the "friendly fire" of autoimmune disease, if the diet also contributed to some other factor such as leaky gut--anyways, there's lots of room for a strong immune system being just fine, in the ordinary course of things.
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