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  #121   ^
Old Sun, Feb-04-18, 06:58
teaser's Avatar
teaser teaser is offline
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https://www.sciencedaily.com/releas...80131184751.htm



Quote:
Injecting minute amounts of two immune-stimulating agents directly into solid tumors in mice can eliminate all traces of cancer in the animals, including distant, untreated metastases, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

The approach works for many different types of cancers, including those that arise spontaneously, the study found.

The researchers believe the local application of very small amounts of the agents could serve as a rapid and relatively inexpensive cancer therapy that is unlikely to cause the adverse side effects often seen with bodywide immune stimulation.

"When we use these two agents together, we see the elimination of tumors all over the body," said Ronald Levy, MD, professor of oncology. "This approach bypasses the need to identify tumor-specific immune targets and doesn't require wholesale activation of the immune system or customization of a patient's immune cells."

One agent is currently already approved for use in humans; the other has been tested for human use in several unrelated clinical trials. A clinical trial was launched in January to test the effect of the treatment in patients with lymphoma.

Levy, who holds the Robert K. and Helen K. Summy Professorship in the School of Medicine, is the senior author of the study, which will be published Jan. 31 in Science Translational Medicine. Instructor of medicine Idit Sagiv-Barfi, PhD, is the lead author.

'Amazing, bodywide effects'

Levy is a pioneer in the field of cancer immunotherapy, in which researchers try to harness the immune system to combat cancer. Research in his laboratory led to the development of rituximab, one of the first monoclonal antibodies approved for use as an anticancer treatment in humans.

Some immunotherapy approaches rely on stimulating the immune system throughout the body. Others target naturally occurring checkpoints that limit the anti-cancer activity of immune cells. Still others, like the CAR T-cell therapy recently approved to treat some types of leukemia and lymphomas, require a patient's immune cells to be removed from the body and genetically engineered to attack the tumor cells. Many of these approaches have been successful, but they each have downsides -- from difficult-to-handle side effects to high-cost and lengthy preparation or treatment times.

"All of these immunotherapy advances are changing medical practice," Levy said. "Our approach uses a one-time application of very small amounts of two agents to stimulate the immune cells only within the tumor itself. In the mice, we saw amazing, bodywide effects, including the elimination of tumors all over the animal."

Cancers often exist in a strange kind of limbo with regard to the immune system. Immune cells like T cells recognize the abnormal proteins often present on cancer cells and infiltrate to attack the tumor. However, as the tumor grows, it often devises ways to suppress the activity of the T cells.

Levy's method works to reactivate the cancer-specific T cells by injecting microgram amounts of two agents directly into the tumor site. (A microgram is one-millionth of a gram). One, a short stretch of DNA called a CpG oligonucleotide, works with other nearby immune cells to amplify the expression of an activating receptor called OX40 on the surface of the T cells. The other, an antibody that binds to OX40, activates the T cells to lead the charge against the cancer cells. Because the two agents are injected directly into the tumor, only T cells that have infiltrated it are activated. In effect, these T cells are "prescreened" by the body to recognize only cancer-specific proteins.

Cancer-destroying rangers

Some of these tumor-specific, activated T cells then leave the original tumor to find and destroy other identical tumors throughout the body.

The approach worked startlingly well in laboratory mice with transplanted mouse lymphoma tumors in two sites on their bodies. Injecting one tumor site with the two agents caused the regression not just of the treated tumor, but also of the second, untreated tumor. In this way, 87 of 90 mice were cured of the cancer. Although the cancer recurred in three of the mice, the tumors again regressed after a second treatment. The researchers saw similar results in mice bearing breast, colon and melanoma tumors.

Mice genetically engineered to spontaneously develop breast cancers in all 10 of their mammary pads also responded to the treatment. Treating the first tumor that arose often prevented the occurrence of future tumors and significantly increased the animals' life span, the researchers found.

Finally, Sagiv-Barfi explored the specificity of the T cells by transplanting two types of tumors into the mice. She transplanted the same lymphoma cancer cells in two locations, and she transplanted a colon cancer cell line in a third location. Treatment of one of the lymphoma sites caused the regression of both lymphoma tumors but did not affect the growth of the colon cancer cells.

"This is a very targeted approach," Levy said. "Only the tumor that shares the protein targets displayed by the treated site is affected. We're attacking specific targets without having to identify exactly what proteins the T cells are recognizing."

The current clinical trial is expected to recruit about 15 patients with low-grade lymphoma. If successful, Levy believes the treatment could be useful for many tumor types. He envisions a future in which clinicians inject the two agents into solid tumors in humans prior to surgical removal of the cancer as a way to prevent recurrence due to unidentified metastases or lingering cancer cells, or even to head off the development of future tumors that arise due to genetic mutations like BRCA1 and 2.

"I don't think there's a limit to the type of tumor we could potentially treat, as long as it has been infiltrated by the immune system," Levy said.

The work is an example of Stanford Medicine's focus on precision health, the goal of which is to anticipate and prevent disease in the healthy and precisely diagnose and treat disease in the ill.


I find this very promising.
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  #122   ^
Old Mon, Feb-05-18, 05:17
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WereBear WereBear is offline
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It is, quite interesting. Sounds like it removes an element of confusion for the immune system?
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  #123   ^
Old Mon, Feb-05-18, 09:54
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khrussva khrussva is online now
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Yes it does sound quite promising. Our immune system is both a mystery and a marvel to me. It makes sense to me that the best way to rid ourselves of cancer is to have our own bodies take care of it. Perhaps our immune system just needs a little training to successfully attack the right thing. Thanks for posting.

Last edited by khrussva : Mon, Feb-05-18 at 10:10.
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  #124   ^
Old Mon, Feb-05-18, 10:04
Squarecube's Avatar
Squarecube Squarecube is offline
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Thanks for posting this. A great read.
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  #125   ^
Old Fri, Feb-09-18, 11:23
teaser's Avatar
teaser teaser is offline
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https://www.sciencedaily.com/releas...80207140417.htm

Quote:
Two-step process to thwart cancer cells

Scientists at the University of Delaware and the University of Illinois at Chicago have found a new way to kill liver cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth. First, they silence a key cellular enzyme, and then they add a powerful drug. They describe their methods in a new paper published in Nature Communications.

This research could accelerate the development of new treatments for liver cancer, which is currently difficult to cure. Often surgery is not an option for liver cancer, and the available drugs are only modestly effective. More than 82 percent of liver cancer patients die within five years of diagnosis, according to the National Institutes of Health.

Manipulating cells to kill cancer

This project originated in labs at the University of Illinois at Chicago, where researchers grew liver cancer cells and manipulated their expression of an enzyme called hexokinase-2. Then, the cells were treated with metformin, a diabetes drug that decreases glucose production in the liver.

The research group of Maciek R. Antoniewicz, Centennial Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of Delaware, designed a set of experiments to measure how cancer cells respond to the loss of hexokinase-2, an enzyme that helps cells metabolize glucose, their food source.

Antoniewicz is an expert in metabolic flux analysis, a technique for studying metabolism in biological systems. His research group is one of only a few in the world with expertise in a technique called 13C metabolic flux analysis of cancer cells, and he recently published a paper in Experimental & Molecular Medicine describing his methods.

"The complexities of mammalian metabolism require a systems-level analysis of the underlying networks and phenotypes, and this is what my lab specializes in," he said.

The UD cohort used mass spectrometry to analyze the cancer cells and then determined intracellular metabolic fluxes for cells with and without hexokinase-2. They suspected that cells deprived of hexokinase-2 would starve and die, but surprisingly, they found that targeting hexokinase-2 alone had only a marginal impact on stopping cancer cell growth. Another weapon, metformin, was needed to complete the job.

"The importance of our paper is that we show that targeting hexokinase-2 can indeed be a successful strategy for cancer therapy, when you also target a second compensatory mechanism with the drug metformin," said Antoniewicz.

His work provided important clues to what this second target should be, providing fertile ground for the next phase of research.

Finally, the research team at the University of Illinois at Chicago tested a combination of hexokinase-2 depletion and sorafenib, a liver cancer drug, on liver cancer tumors in mice. This combo worked better than either treatment alone.

The work was supported by three grants from the National Institutes of Health and a Veterans Administration merit award.


Another way to target glucose. Similar approaches might greatly expand the number of cancers where it makes sense to target glucose.
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  #126   ^
Old Thu, Feb-15-18, 04:41
JEY100's Avatar
JEY100 JEY100 is online now
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A new French study getting press in the UK outlets, almost no mention in the US. It is a rather broad, generalized target, but interesting with a large number of participants.

Quote:
Ultra-processed foods may be linked to cancer, says study

Findings suggest increased consumption of ultra-processed foods tied to rise in cancers, but scientists say more research is needed


https://www.theguardian.com/science...ncer-says-study

Later, on CNN. "Ultra-processed foods linked to increased cancer risk"
https://www.cnn.com/2018/02/14/heal...tudy/index.html

Last edited by JEY100 : Thu, Feb-15-18 at 07:07.
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  #127   ^
Old Thu, Feb-15-18, 06:13
WereBear's Avatar
WereBear WereBear is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by JEY100
A new French study getting press in the UK outlets, almost no mention in the US. It is a rather broad, generalized target, but interesting with a large number of participants.

Quote:
Ultra-processed foods may be linked to cancer, says study

Findings suggest increased consumption of ultra-processed foods tied to rise in cancers, but scientists say more research is needed



https://www.theguardian.com/science...ncer-says-study


Funny how once a drug is on the market it needs no further study. And no science is needed to create a Food Pyramid.

I mean, yes, further research is always needed, but they are SOOOOO selective about it, right?

That "five a day" thing for fruits and vegetables? No study at all. It was marketing.
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  #128   ^
Old Thu, Feb-15-18, 07:34
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Meme#1 Meme#1 is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by JEY100
A new French study getting press in the UK outlets, almost no mention in the US. It is a rather broad, generalized target, but interesting with a large number of participants.



https://www.theguardian.com/science...ncer-says-study

Later, on CNN. "Ultra-processed foods linked to increased cancer risk"
https://www.cnn.com/2018/02/14/heal...tudy/index.html


My pantry is so completely empty now, void of those boxed and processed fake foods! It's great to have all of that extra space....

I also read an article recently that stated the French people consume twice the amount of butter than people eating the SAD... I thought that was interesting.
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