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  #1   ^
Old Tue, Dec-20-16, 08:15
teaser's Avatar
teaser teaser is offline
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Posts: 12,318
Plan: ketosis/IF
Stats: 190/157.2/154 Male 67inches
Progress: 91%
Location: Ontario
Default Sugar and sweeteners: How do they affect our appetite?

What should healthy young men who want to watch their weight and manage their blood sugar levels drink? Can they risk something sugary or will they be hungrier after drinking calorie-free options containing natural or artificial non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS)? A new study published in Springer Nature's International Journal of Obesity shows that it doesn't really matter whether such drinks contain sugar, Stevia, monk fruit or aspartame. In the end, things even out in how the body reacts to these four options in terms of overall energy intake and the levels of glucose and insulin in the blood, says lead author Siew Ling Tey of the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) in Singapore. This is of interest given the growing popularity of natural plant-derived products, and the need to find out whether natural non-nutritive sweeteners are healthier than sugar or an artificial non-nutritive sweetener.

The effect of four different drinks was tested: one contained sugar (sucrose), another the artificial non-nutritive sweetener aspartame and two others the natural NNS made from either the plants Stevia (Rebaudioside A) or monk fruit (Mogroside V). These are the only two natural non-nutritive sweeteners approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, along with six other NNS including aspartame.

In this short term study, thirty healthy male study participants randomly consumed one of the four sweetened drinks on each of the different days of the investigation. On each test day, participants ate a standardized breakfast, and by mid-morning received one test beverage to tide them over until lunch. An hour later they were provided with a lunchtime meal and asked to eat until comfortably full. Their blood glucose and insulin concentrations were measured closely, while participants also kept a food diary of what they ate for the rest of the day.

Tey describes the findings as "surprising." There was no difference in the total daily energy intake across all four treatments, meaning that overall participants consumed the same amount of energy (calories) during the course of a day. They either reduced meal intake after the sucrose-sweetened drink or ate significantly more at lunchtime and the rest of the day to compensate for the three calorie-free drink options.

People sometimes worry that using non-nutritive sweeteners could increase their appetite, which may then lead them to overeat to make up for the energy they saved by not choosing sugar. The current study found that although participants felt slightly hungrier and looked forward more to eating something again when they drank non-nutritive sweetened beverages, they did not overindulge. They did however eat more following the NNS drinks than when they consumed the sugar sweetened drink.

"The energy 'saved' from replacing sugar with non-nutritive sweetener was fully compensated for at subsequent meals in the current study, hence no difference in total daily energy intake was found between the four treatments," explains Tey. "It appears that the source of non-nutritive sweeteners, whether artificial or natural, does not differ in its effects on energy intake, postprandial glucose and insulin," says Tey. However, a recent comprehensive meta-analysis2 of longer term studies has demonstrated that when non-nutritive sweeteners are consumed over time there is a sustained reduction in overall energy intake and it reduces body weight.

Something for everybody here. Sugar defenders can say--see? Compensation. Drinking a sugary pop won't make you fat. And the artificial sweetener industry gets to say, um, that their products whose purpose of existence is being preferable to sugar is at least not worse than sugar, when it comes to calorie intake.

I think this is worse for sugar than it sounds. Even for high carbers--what's better nutrition, a can of coke, or a can of diet coke and a potato?
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  #2   ^
Old Tue, Dec-20-16, 11:36
GRB5111's Avatar
GRB5111 GRB5111 is offline
Posts: 2,149
Plan: Ketogenic (LCHFKD)
Stats: 227/186/185 Male 6' 0"
Progress: 98%
Location: Herndon, VA

Very interesting and a good source for much discussion and debate. Can't argue with the results other than to wonder how much of The Hawthorne Effect we have here. In addition, these "healthy male study participants" could very possibly experience different results than participants who were older, had insulin resistance, were obese, or had any of the other Metabolic Syndrome symptoms. I would be speculating here, but I wonder how many healthy males gravitate towards NNS drinks? The other confounder here is NNS and sugar consumption over time, and in this case, it would be informative to track consumption over 10 or more years.
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  #3   ^
Old Tue, Dec-20-16, 13:17
Dodger's Avatar
Dodger Dodger is offline
Posts: 8,271
Plan: Paleoish
Stats: 225/175/175 Male 71.5 inches
Progress: 100%
Location: Longmont, Colorado

Those that drank the calorie-free drinks got the missing calories from real food. The who drank the sugar drink got calories from sugar. The real food provides micronutrients that the sugar does not.
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  #4   ^
Old Tue, Dec-20-16, 16:00
Zei Zei is offline
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Posts: 1,256
Plan: Carb reduction in general
Stats: 230/213/180 Female 5 ft 9 in
Progress: 34%
Location: Texas

Being I'm not a "healthy young male" my blood sugar would skyrocket with the sugared drink but not the others, so for me that's important. Also shows the body's not stupid; it's highly regulated and somehow senses/knows how much energy it's getting and consumes the amount it needs, at least in metabolically healthy young men. My mom said she could fool herself when she wanted to lose weight by filling up on a big energy-sparse salad. I could never do that because something inside me would somehow sense how much energy value I'd consumed and a little while after all those bulky veggies were processed give me the message, "That wasn't food! Now send me some real food to eat!" Like protein and fats.
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  #5   ^
Old Wed, Dec-21-16, 05:33
WereBear's Avatar
WereBear WereBear is offline
Posts: 10,369
Plan: Epi-Paleo/IF
Stats: 220/161/150 Female 67
Progress: 84%
Location: USA

I used to eat the "healthy low fat meal" and be ready to rip the fridge door off its hinges less than two hours later.

This led me to realize my pancreas has one speed when it comes to sugar and starch: Release the Tanker Car of insulin!

A good-sized, low carb, meal will let me cruise for hours and hours.
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  #6   ^
Old Wed, Dec-21-16, 06:05
jaywood jaywood is offline
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Posts: 513
Plan: the FightDoctors plan
Stats: 215/171/165 Male 177 cm
Progress: 88%
Location: Scotland

Like Zei I had a very similar response to eating calorie light foods as a way of dieting. My body would just never stop eating, almost as though the pathway to shut off feeling full with bulk was just not functioning. I could literally eat carrot sticks all day. (ok some days I did).

I always wonder about the effects that sweeteners have on the body. We talk loads about fizzy pop and how that affects people, but diluting juice which is far more common, has basically the same concentrations but is not classed in the same category as diet coke.

Like wise, with gum, is that a problem is it not. Does it make you go out and eat more or less, or does it have no effect what-so-ever.

I like the idea of a self-regulating human but I don't think that is the norm for the overweight of us. If it was, we would not be overweight!

I still drink a lot of sweeteners, from my squash, and thankfully it does nothing to my blood sugars. But I have never been a water drinker, so for me I will continue to ingest the chemicals, on the knowledge that they are better for me than being 4 stone heavier.
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  #7   ^
Old Wed, Dec-21-16, 12:03
Nancy LC's Avatar
Nancy LC Nancy LC is offline
Posts: 45,237
Plan: Paleo 99.5%
Stats: 210/170/160 Female 67.5"
Progress: 80%
Location: San Diego, CA

Couple of ways this might not apply. We're not necessarily healthy young men and the study was only 4 days long. What happens over the course of a year? What happens in people already battling weight problems?
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  #8   ^
Old Wed, Dec-21-16, 14:48
teaser's Avatar
teaser teaser is offline
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Posts: 12,318
Plan: ketosis/IF
Stats: 190/157.2/154 Male 67inches
Progress: 91%
Location: Ontario

Yup. I think a fair number of studies have little other purpose but to facilitate a particular spin. Of course, that's just me putting a particular spin on this, since I haven't much if anything to back up my suspicion in this particular case. Also, mid-morning sugar calories being compensated for at other meals--does it matter what those other meals are made of? And what would be the effect of plain water? And in our society, healthy lean people might tend to be those who are most resistant to the effects of sugar or sweetener, etc.
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