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  #1   ^
Old Sun, Aug-04-02, 14:04
Voyajer's Avatar
Voyajer Voyajer is offline
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Posts: 475
 
Plan: Protein Power LP Dilletan
Stats: 164/145/138 Female 5'7"
BF:
Progress: 73%
Default A Review of Studies Listed on the Forum (to 2002) re - Fat, Diet, and Cholesterol

A Review of Diet, Fat, and Cholesterol Research: 25 Points.

Introduction:
Those who have heart disease generally but not always have high blood cholesterol. It is therefore theorized that high cholesterol causes heart disease. This is called a correlation. A correlation is an observation where when something increases, something else increases (a positive correlation) or when something increases, something else decreases (a negative correlation).
An example of how correlations don't necessarily prove anything is: In the last 100 years there has been an increase in global warming. And in the last 100 years women's shoe sizes have gotten bigger.
Does this show that global warming causes women's feet to get bigger?
So does high cholesterol cause heart disease? Just because many people have high cholesterol that also have heart disease doesn't prove this. Heart disease could cause high cholesterol. Or else high cholesterol could be a normal state for some people and heart disease could be caused by some other factor that causes cholesterol to clog the arteries. This is not a speculative statement as there exist at least two theories of heart disease that may make cholesterol an insignificant factor in heart disease: the homocysteine theory and the C-reactive protein theory.(1, 2)
1. Total serum cholesterol has proven not to be a strong determinant of cardiovascular risk.(3, 4)
2. HDL ratio has been proven to be a better standard to assess cardiovascular risk. What can you eat to raise HDL? Only one thing: fat.(5) All fats raise HDL but saturated fats raise HDL the most.(6)
3. The saturated fats except stearic acid do raise total serum cholesterol levels as shown in controlled and epidemiological studies.(7, 8, 9, 19, 33) This is insignificant if total cholesterol has little to do with heart disease.
4. If you have high cholesterol in most cases there is no need to avoid red meat. This is because only 30% of fats in red meat are composed of the saturated fats that raise cholesterol. What are the other 70%? Stearic acid which has a neutral effect on cholesterol comprises about 15%.(10, 19) About 50% is monounsaturated fat (like olive oil) which does not raise total cholesterol levels but raises HDL the good cholesterol.(25) And the remainder is polyunsaturated fat which lowers total cholesterol levels while raising HDL.(11) One study shows that lean red meat is equal to eating lean white meat.(12) So how do they test whether saturated fats raise cholesterol if red meat has so much of the other fats? One study used tropical oils.(9) Others have used liquid cholesterol products. When a natural diet is used, calculations are made according to percentage of each fat in each product, then elevation of cholesterol is apportioned accordingly.
5. It is beneficial that some saturated fats can raise cholesterol because if blood cholesterol gets too low, people get depressed, commit suicide or die of cancer.(13, 14, 15)
6. Studies are inconsistent regarding saturated fat. In one epidemiological study the more saturated fat one ate, the lower their serum cholesterol was.(16) In another study, saturated fats in the diet were high, but serum cholesterol levels were low.(17) Because the results of studies lack consistancy as regards to saturated fats in the diet, there must be some attenuating affect of saturated fats that negates the rise in total serum cholesterol.(19)
7. It is over-simplifying to name one villain, "saturated fat", as the culprit in heart disease especially when the results of studies on saturated fat are contradictory, inconclusive, and ambiguous at best. There are other factors that influence heart disease including but not limited to high glycemic carbohydrate intake, homocysteine, C-reactive protein, oxidative stress, smoking, and exercise to name just a few.(45) A meta-analysis of research to date states, "Despite decades of effort and many thousands of people randomized, there is still only limited and inconclusive evidence of the effects of modification of total, saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fats on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality."(4)
8. In most people, however, if saturated fat raises their blood cholesterol it is probably not an important risk factor for heart disease as HDL is raised along with total cholesterol. It is also important to note that although LDL is raised too, it has been shown that there are two different types of LDL and saturated fats raise the good kind of LDL.(18) Also avoiding saturated fat may not be an important deterrent of heart disease because saturated fat is never alone in natural animal products but accompanied by monounsaturated (olive-oil-type-fats). Therefore, the combination of fats in animal products keep cholesterol levels where they should be which accounts for them not being a significant risk factor.(19)
9. Fat intake in the diet should not be decreased.(20, 19)
10. Protein with 80% from animal products which includes saturated fats lessens risk of heart disease.(21, 22)
11. Lowering saturated fats and cholesterol in the diet lowers HDL and decreases secretion of the good APO A-1 cholesterol.(23, 24)
12. Replacing saturated fats in the diet with carbohydrates is bad for your serum cholesterol and bad in general for your heart disease risk and mortality.(25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30) Carbohydrates are not an essential nutrient in the diet.(31) Carbohydrates increase C-reactive protein thereby increasing risk of heart disease.(32)
13. Some nations that eat a high amount of fats and animal products [Crete(33, 34, 3) and Spain(35)] have less heart disease than nations who eat a little fat. Total fat in the diet is not an indicator.(3, 20)
14. Dietary cholesterol has little impact on total blood cholesterol.(36) Dietary cholesterol does not increase risk for heart disease or stroke.(37) Two-thirds of the population show no change in serum cholesterol levels from intake of cholesterol.(38) Dietary cholesterol accounts for a minimum amount of cholesterol produced by the body. The liver produces most cholesterol in the body. Eating cholesterol down-regulates your body's production of cholesterol.(39)
15. Many people with low cholesterol levels die of heart disease. One article stated: "Indeed, high cholesterol levels alone could only predict at most half of all heart attacks."(2)
16. Many people with exceptionally elevated levels of cholesterol never have a heart attack.(2)
17. Researchers say if a person, group of people or nation has higher serum cholesterol that they are at greater risk for heart disease. Croatia and Japan have high cholesterol but low heart disease.(40, 41) But considering that many people have high cholesterol and do not have heart disease and many with low cholesterol do have heart disease, then this may not be a valid marker of risk.(2)
18. Once the rise in HDL is factored in, studies have shown that saturated fats are less of a risk factor for heart disease than carbohydrate.(19, 42, 43)
19. A lot of people with heart disease have high triglycerides. High triglycerides are a risk factor for heart disease.(44, 45) Eating fat, any kind of fat, lowers triglycerides.(19, 46)
20. The American Heart Association has recommended that people with low HDL go on a diet high in unsaturated fat rather than replacing fat with carbohydrate.(47)
21. Saturated fats do not increase risk of diabetes.(48) The American Diabetes Association has recently recommended a high monounsaturated fat diet to those with diabetes.(49)
22. The American Heart Association says high glycemic carbohydrates are linked to heart disease.(50)
23. The American Heart Association says Americans should eat a 30% fat diet with not less than 15% fat.(47) The American Heart Association says diets less than 15% fat can be dangerous.(51) Ironically, Americans do not know this so they try to eat 0% fat and are ruining their health. However, these guidelines limiting fat intake to 30% do not appear to have support of the studies shown here.
24. Fats are not the cause of obesity.(52, 53) Studies have shown that diets high in fat and low in carbohydrate cause a person to lose weight.(54) High fat foods like nuts decrease risk of heart disease.(55)
25. Another important consideration is what our bodies were meant to eat. For the last 2.5 million years man has evolved as a hunter/gatherer with emphasis on carnivore-hunter. In the past hundred years man may have evolved a higher consciousness and may want to be vegetarian, but our bodies are genetically still 99.8% Paleolithic man and as such require meat. The leading experts on Paleolithic Nutrition say that man has eaten mostly animal products (likely over 50%) for most of his existence on earth.(56, 57, 58) Another important factor in evolution was man's development of a larger brain vs. body size. The only way this could have happened was with a nutrient dense source. The accepted explanation is "The Expensive Tissue Hypothesis" which states that meat and fat were that source.(59) These studies show that during man's entire history on earth fat intake would have exceeded both carbohydrate and protein intake. Grains are a foreign product in human evolution. For 99.9% of man's existence on earth, man did not eat grain. In fact, man is the only primate to eat cereal grains.(60) Therefore, trying to force our bodies to accept some form of higher consciousness by trying not to eat animal products would be a foreign diet to our system causing an unbalance and malnutrition in ways that science cannot even predict. Imbalance in the human body is the cause of all disease. When the body is perfectly balanced it is disease-free. Imbalance causes cancer, heart disease, autoimmune disease, and death. In other words, man's so-called recent "higher consciousness" is killing him.

Therefore, fat in the diet has never been the problem. Avoiding fat is the problem.


References
1 McCully KS, Wilson RB. Homocysteine theory of arteriosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 1975 Sep-Oct;22(2):215-27.
2 Gary Taubes, Does Inflammation Cut to the Heart of the Matter? Science Magazine Volume 296, Number 5566, Issue of 12 Apr 2002, pp. 242-245.
3 Hu FB, Willett WC, Types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a critical review. J Am Coll Nutr 2001 Feb;20(1):5-19.
4 Lee Hooper et al, Dietary fat intake and prevention of cardiovascular disease: systematic review. BMJ 2001;322:757-763 (31 March).
5 Niacin also raises HDL. Tavvintharan S, Kashyap ML, The benefits of niacin in atherosclerosis. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2001 Jan; 3(1):74-82.
6 Ridker PM, Stampfer MJ, Rifai N. Novel risk factors for systemic atherosclerosis: a comparison of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, homocysteine, lipoprotein(a), and standard cholesterol screening as predictors of peripheral arterial disease. JAMA 2001 May 16;285(19):2481-5.
7 Pai T, Yeh YY Stearic acid unlike shorter-chain saturated fatty acids is poorly utilized for triacylglycerol synthesis and beta-oxidation in cultured rat hepatocytes. Lipids 1996 Feb;31(2):159-64.
8 Kelly FD, Sinclair AJ, Mann NJ, Turner AH, Raffin FL, Blandford MV, Pike MJ. Short-term diets enriched in stearic or palmitic acids do not alter plasma lipids, platelet aggregation or platelet activation status. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002 Jun;56(6):490-9.
9 Francisco J. Sánchez-Muniz*, Mari Cruz Merinero*, Sonia Rodríguez-Gil*, Jose M Ordovas, Sofía Ródenas and Carmen Cuesta** Dietary Fat Saturation Affects Apolipoprotein AII Levels and HDL Composition in Postmenopausal Women The American Society for Nutritional Sciences. J. Nutr. 132:50-54, 2002.
10 Pai T, Yeh YY. Stearic acid unlike shorter-chain saturated fatty acids is poorly utilized for triacylglycerol synthesis and beta-oxidation in cultured rat hepatocytes. Lipids 1996 Feb;31(2):159-64.
11 Gary Taubes The Soft Science of Dietary Fat Science. Volume 291, Number 5513, Issue of 30 Mar 2001, pp. 2536-2545.
12 Davidson MH, Hunninghake D, Maki KC, Kwiterovich PO Jr, Kafonek S Comparison of the effects of lean red meat vs lean white meat on serum lipid levels among free-living persons with hypercholesterolemia: a long-term, randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med 1999 Jun 28;159(12):1331-8..
13 Kreger BE, Anderson KM, Schatzkin A, Splansky GL.Cancer Serum cholesterol level, body mass index, and the risk of colon cancer. The Framingham Study. 1992 Sep 1;70(5):1038-43
14 Hawthon K, Cowen P, Owens D, Bond A, Elliott M. Low serum cholesterol and suicide. Br J Psychiatry 1993 Jun;162:818-25.
15 Ellison LF, Morrison HI Low serum cholesterol concentration and risk of suicide. Epidemiology 2001 Mar;12(2):168-72.
16 Castelli, William, Concerning the Possibility of a Nut... Archives of Internal Med, Jul 1992, 152:(7):1371-2.
17 Posner BM, Cupples LA, Franz MM, Gagnon DR. Diet and heart disease risk factors in adult American men and women: the Framingham Offspring-Spouse nutrition studies. Int J Epidemiol 1993 Dec;22(6):1014-25.
18 Dreon DM, Fernstrom HA, Campos H, Blanche P, Williams PT, Krauss RM.Change in dietary saturated fat intake is correlated with change in mass of large low-density-lipoprotein particles in men. Am J Clin Nutr 1998 May;67(5):828-36.
19 Mensink et al. Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A meta-analysis of 27 trials. Arterioscler Thromb 1992; 12: 911-9.
20 L.A. Corr, M.F. Oliver The low fat/low cholesterol diet is ineffective--European Heart Journal European Heart Journal (1997) 18, 18-22.
21 Frank B Hu, Meir J Stampfer, JoAnn E Manson, Eric Rimm, Graham A Colditz, Frank E Speizer, Charles H Hennekens and Walter C Willett Dietary protein and risk of ischemic heart disease in women American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 70, No. 2, 221-227, August 1999.
22 Frank B Hu and Walter Willett. Reply to TC Campbell. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 71, No. 3, 850-851, March 2000.
23 Velez-Carrasco W, Lichtenstein AH, Welty FK, Li Z, Lamon-Fava S, Dolnikowski GG, Schaefer EJ. Dietary restriction of saturated fat and cholesterol decreases HDL ApoA-I secretion. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999 Apr;19(4):918-24.
24 Brinton E, S. E., Jan Breslow (1990). "A Low-fat Diet Decreases High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Cholesterol Levels by Decreasing HDL Apolipoprotein Transport Rates." J Clin. Invest. 85(January): 144-151.
25 Kris-Etherton PM. AHA Science Advisory: monounsaturated fatty acids and risk of cardiovascular disease. American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation.. 1999;100:1253-1258
26 Simin Liu, JoAnn E Manson, Frank B Hu and Walter C Willett. Reply to DL Katz. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 73, No. 1, 132-133, January 2001.
27 Liu S, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, et al. A prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1455-61.
28 Simin Liu, JoAnn E Manson, Frank B Hu and Walter C Willett, Reply to BO Schneeman, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 73, No. 1, 130-131, January 2001.
29 J Jeppesen, P Schaaf, C Jones, MY Zhou, YD Chen and GM Reaven Effects of low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets on risk factors for ischemic heart disease in postmenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol 65, 1027-1033, 1997.
30 MB Katan, Effect of low-fat diets on plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol 67, 573S-576S, 1998.
31 Eric C Westman Is dietary carbohydrate essential for human nutrition? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 75, No. 5, 951-953, May 2002.
32 Simin Liu, JoAnn E Manson, Julie E Buring, Meir J Stampfer, Walter C Willett and Paul M Ridker, Relation between a diet with a high glycemic load and plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in middle-aged women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 75, No. 3, 492-498, March 2002.
33 Kromhout et al. Dietary saturated and trans fatty acids and cholesterol and 25-year mortality from coronary heart disease: the Seven Countries Study.Prev Med 1995; 24: 308-15
34 Kafatos A, Diacatou A, Voukiklaris G, Nikolakakis N, Vlachonikolis J, Kounali D, Mamalakis G, Dontas AS. Heart disease risk-factor status and dietary changes in the Cretan population over the past 30 y: the Seven Countries Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1997 Jun;65(6):1882-6.
35 L Serra-Majem, L Ribas, R Tresserras, J Ngo and L Salleras. How could changes in diet explain changes in coronary heart disease mortality in Spain? The Spanish paradox American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol 61, 1351S-1359S, 1995.
36 Boucher P, de Lorgeril M, Salen P, Crozier P, Delaye J, Vallon JJ, Geyssant A, Dante R.
Effect of dietary cholesterol on low density lipoprotein-receptor, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, and low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mRNA expression in healthy humans. Lipids 1998 Dec;33(12):1177-86.
37 Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, Manson JE, Ascherio A, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Spiegelman D, Speizer FE, Sacks FM, Hennekens CH, Willett WC. A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women. JAMA 1999 Apr 21;281(15):1387-94.
38 McNamara DJ. Dietary cholesterol and the optimal diet for reducing risk of atherosclerosis. Can J Cardiol 1995 Oct;11 Suppl G:123G-126G.
39 Jones PJ, Pappu AS, Hatcher L, Li ZC, Illingworth DR, Connor WE, Dietary cholesterol feeding suppresses human cholesterol synthesis measured by deuterium incorporation and urinary mevalonic acid levels. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1996 Oct;16(10):1222-8.
40 Menotti A, Keys A, Blackburn H, Kromhout D, Karvonen M, Nissinen A, Pekkanen J, Punsar S, Fidanza F, Giampaoli S, Seccareccia F, Buzina R, Mohacek I, Nedeljkovic S, Aravanis C, Dontas A, Toshima H, Lanti M. Comparison of multivariate predictive power of major risk factors for coronary heart diseases in different countries: results from eight nations of the Seven Countries Study, 25-year follow-up. J Cardiovasc Risk 1996 Feb;3(1):69-75.
41 Verschuren WM, Jacobs DR, Bloemberg BP, Kromhout D, Menotti A, Aravanis C, Blackburn H, Buzina R, Dontas AS, Fidanza F, et al. Serum total cholesterol and long-term coronary heart disease mortality in different cultures. Twenty-five-year follow-up of the seven countries study. JAMA 1995 Jul 12;274(2):131-6.
42 Walter C Willett, Reply to AE Hardman American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, No. 4, 1061-1062, October 2000.
43 Walter C. Willett Will High-Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diets Reduce the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease? Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 2000 Dec; 225(3):187-90.
44 Lapidus L, Bengtsson C, Lindquist O, Sigurdsson JA, Rybo E. Triglycerides--main lipid risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women? Acta Med Scand 1985;217(5):481-9.
45 Harjai KJ. Potential new cardiovascular risk factors : left ventricular hypertrophy, homocysteine, lipoprotein(a), triglycerides , oxidative stress, and fibrinogen. Ann Intern Med 1999 Sep 7;131(5):376-86.
46 Walter Willett, Meir Stampfer, Nain-Feng Chu, Donna Spiegelman, Michelle Holmes and Eric Rimm Assessment of Questionnaire Validity for Measuring Total Fat Intake using Plasma Lipid Levels as Criteria American Journal of Epidemiology Vol. 154, No. 12 : 1107-1112
2001.
47 Ronald M. Krauss, et al, AHA Dietary Guidelines : Revision 2000: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association Circulation 0: 2296-2311.
48 Salmeron J, Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rimm EB, Willett WC. Dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in women.Am J Clin Nutr 2001 Jun;73(6):1019-26.
49 Marion J. Franz, et al. Evidence-Based Nutrition Principles and Recommendations for the Treatment and Prevention of Diabetes and Related Complications Diabetes Care 25:148-198, 2002.
50 Barbara V. Howard, PhD; Judith Wylie-Rosett, RD, EdD AHA Scientific Statement Sugar and Cardiovascular Disease A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Committee on Nutrition of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association Circulation. 2002;106:523
51 Very low fat diets may harm some people. BMJ 1998 Feb 21;316(7131):573
52 Willett WC Dietary fat plays a major role in obesity: No. Obesity Review 2002 May;3(2):59-68.
53 Walter C Willett Is dietary fat a major determinant of body fat? Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67(suppl):556S-62S. 1998
54 Westman EC, Yancy WS, Edman JS, Tomlin KF, Perkins CE, Effect of 6-month adherence to a very low carbohydrate diet program. Am J Med 2002 Jul;113(1):30-6.
55 Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH, Willett WC. Frequent nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women: prospective cohort study. BMJ 1998 Nov 14;317(7169):1341-5.
56 Loren Cordain, Janette Brand Miller, S Boyd Eaton, Neil Mann, Susanne HA Holt and John D Speth Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 71, No. 3, 682-692, March 2000.
57 Cordain L, Eaton SB, Miller JB, Mann N, Hill K. The paradoxical nature of hunter-gatherer diets: meat-based, yet non-atherogenic. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002 Mar;56 Suppl 1:S42-52.
58 Loren Cordain, Janette Brand Miller, S Boyd Eaton and Neil Mann Macronutrient estimations in hunter-gatherer diets American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, No. 6, 1589-1590, December 2000.
59 Aiello LC, Wheeler PE. The expensive-tissue hypothesis. Current Anthropol 36:199-221, 1995.
60 S. Boyd Eaton, MD, Stanley B. Eaton III Evolution, Diet and Health , poster session, the Williamsburg-ICAES conference 1998.

Last edited by Voyajer : Mon, Aug-05-02 at 01:13.
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  #2   ^
Old Sun, Aug-04-02, 18:10
DebPenny's Avatar
DebPenny DebPenny is offline
Senior Member
Posts: 1,514
 
Plan: TSP/PPLP/low-cal/My own
Stats: 250/209/150 Female 63.5 inches
BF:
Progress: 41%
Location: Sacramento, CA
Thumbs up WOW!

Voyager, that was great! Another one to get my dad to read.

;-Deb
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  #3   ^
Old Tue, Aug-06-02, 22:57
Voyajer's Avatar
Voyajer Voyajer is offline
Senior Member
Posts: 475
 
Plan: Protein Power LP Dilletan
Stats: 164/145/138 Female 5'7"
BF:
Progress: 73%
Default

Thanks Deb,

I realize I forgot two points:

26. There is one fat that should be avoided: trans fat (partially hydrogenated oil). Replacement of just 2% of energy from trans unsaturated fats with unsaturated fats would result in a 53% risk reduction for coronary heart disease. The U.S. government Board of Food and Nutrition recently issued a report on trans fat saying "that dietary trans fatty acids are more deleterious with respect to coronary heart disease than saturated fatty acids."(51) This report suggests "a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of zero."(52)
27. Although the government's Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends that Americans cut their daily saturated fat intake to 10% and certain researchers recommend replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat, there appear to be valid reasons to fear replacing saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats.(53) When the arterial plaque of deceased humans was examined it contained polyunsaturated fats.(54) Oxidation of fats whether it occurs in the body or whether oxidized fat is ingested is known to lead to clogging of the arteries. The fat that oxidizes the easiest is polyunsaturated fat.(55) Saturated fats are the most stable.(56)

References:
51 Ascherio A, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Master C, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. 1994. Trans-fatty acids intake and risk of myocardial infarction. Circulation 89:94-101.
52 Letter Report on Dietary Reference Intakes for Trans Fatty Acids; Institute of Medicine in the National Academy of Sciences, July 10, 2002. http://www.iom.edu/iom/iomhome.nsf/Pages/FNB+Reports.
53 Dietary Guidelines for Americans http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/dga/dga95/lowfat.html
54 Felton CV et al: Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and composition of human aortic plaques. Lancet 1994; 344:1195-1196.
55 Nippon Rinsho, Modified low-density lipoprotein. 1994 Dec; 52(12):3090-5.
56 Bourre JM, Piciotti M. Alterations in eighteen-carbon saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxisomal oxidation in mouse brain during development and aging. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1997 Mar;41(3):461-8.
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  #4   ^
Old Mon, Aug-19-02, 15:40
Voyajer's Avatar
Voyajer Voyajer is offline
Senior Member
Posts: 475
 
Plan: Protein Power LP Dilletan
Stats: 164/145/138 Female 5'7"
BF:
Progress: 73%
Default This is a re-listing of the above references

Quote:
I have re-listed here all the above references and where a discussion or thread exists about them on the forums:



References
1 McCully KS, Wilson RB. Homocysteine theory of arteriosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 1975 Sep-Oct;22(2):215-27.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=54420
http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=52527

2 Gary Taubes, Does Inflammation Cut to the Heart of the Matter? Science Magazine Volume 296, Number 5566, Issue of 12 Apr 2002, pp. 242-245.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=53891

3 Hu FB, Willett WC, Types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a critical review. J Am Coll Nutr 2001 Feb;20(1):5-19.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=52776

4 Lee Hooper et al, Dietary fat intake and prevention of cardiovascular disease: systematic review. BMJ 2001;322:757-763 (31 March).

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=53549

5 Niacin also raises HDL. Tavvintharan S, Kashyap ML, The benefits of niacin in atherosclerosis. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2001 Jan; 3(1):74-82.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=54396

6 Ridker PM, Stampfer MJ, Rifai N. Novel risk factors for systemic atherosclerosis: a comparison of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, homocysteine, lipoprotein(a), and standard cholesterol screening as predictors of peripheral arterial disease. JAMA 2001 May 16;285(19):2481-5.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=53891

7 Pai T, Yeh YY Stearic acid unlike shorter-chain saturated fatty acids is poorly utilized for triacylglycerol synthesis and beta-oxidation in cultured rat hepatocytes. Lipids 1996 Feb;31(2):159-64.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=53606

8 Kelly FD, Sinclair AJ, Mann NJ, Turner AH, Raffin FL, Blandford MV, Pike MJ. Short-term diets enriched in stearic or palmitic acids do not alter plasma lipids, platelet aggregation or platelet activation status. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002 Jun;56(6):490-9.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=53606

9 Francisco J. Sánchez-Muniz*, Mari Cruz Merinero*, Sonia Rodríguez-Gil*, Jose M Ordovas, Sofía Ródenas and Carmen Cuesta** Dietary Fat Saturation Affects Apolipoprotein AII Levels and HDL Composition in Postmenopausal Women The American Society for Nutritional Sciences. J. Nutr. 132:50-54, 2002.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=52960

10 Pai T, Yeh YY. Stearic acid unlike shorter-chain saturated fatty acids is poorly utilized for triacylglycerol synthesis and beta-oxidation in cultured rat hepatocytes. Lipids 1996 Feb;31(2):159-64.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=53606

11 Gary Taubes The Soft Science of Dietary Fat Science. Volume 291, Number 5513, Issue of 30 Mar 2001, pp. 2536-2545.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=40182

12 Davidson MH, Hunninghake D, Maki KC, Kwiterovich PO Jr, Kafonek S Comparison of the effects of lean red meat vs lean white meat on serum lipid levels among free-living persons with hypercholesterolemia: a long-term, randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med 1999 Jun 28;159(12):1331-8..

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=53602

13 Kreger BE, Anderson KM, Schatzkin A, Splansky GL.Cancer Serum cholesterol level, body mass index, and the risk of colon cancer. The Framingham Study. 1992 Sep 1;70(5):1038-43

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=52741

14 Hawthon K, Cowen P, Owens D, Bond A, Elliott M. Low serum cholesterol and suicide. Br J Psychiatry 1993 Jun;162:818-25.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=52741

15 Ellison LF, Morrison HI Low serum cholesterol concentration and risk of suicide. Epidemiology 2001 Mar;12(2):168-72.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=52741

16 Castelli, William, Concerning the Possibility of a Nut... Archives of Internal Med, Jul 1992, 1527):1371-2.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=52783

17 Posner BM, Cupples LA, Franz MM, Gagnon DR. Diet and heart disease risk factors in adult American men and women: the Framingham Offspring-Spouse nutrition studies. Int J Epidemiol 1993 Dec;22(6):1014-25.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=52783

18 Dreon DM, Fernstrom HA, Campos H, Blanche P, Williams PT, Krauss RM.Change in dietary saturated fat intake is correlated with change in mass of large low-density-lipoprotein particles in men. Am J Clin Nutr 1998 May;67(5):828-36.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=53606

19 Mensink et al. Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A meta-analysis of 27 trials. Arterioscler Thromb 1992; 12: 911-9.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=52960

20 L.A. Corr, M.F. Oliver The low fat/low cholesterol diet is ineffective--European Heart Journal European Heart Journal (1997) 18, 18-22.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=53847

21 Frank B Hu, Meir J Stampfer, JoAnn E Manson, Eric Rimm, Graham A Colditz, Frank E Speizer, Charles H Hennekens and Walter C Willett Dietary protein and risk of ischemic heart disease in women American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 70, No. 2, 221-227, August 1999.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=49822
http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=56484

22 Frank B Hu and Walter Willett. Reply to TC Campbell. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 71, No. 3, 850-851, March 2000.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=49822

23 Velez-Carrasco W, Lichtenstein AH, Welty FK, Li Z, Lamon-Fava S, Dolnikowski GG, Schaefer EJ. Dietary restriction of saturated fat and cholesterol decreases HDL ApoA-I secretion. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999 Apr;19(4):918-24.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=52776
http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=48665

24 Brinton E, S. E., Jan Breslow (1990). "A Low-fat Diet Decreases High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Cholesterol Levels by Decreasing HDL Apolipoprotein Transport Rates." J Clin. Invest. 85(January): 144-151.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=52776
http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=48665

25 Kris-Etherton PM. AHA Science Advisory: monounsaturated fatty acids and risk of cardiovascular disease. American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation.. 1999;100:1253-1258

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=47015

26 Simin Liu, JoAnn E Manson, Frank B Hu and Walter C Willett. Reply to DL Katz. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 73, No. 1, 132-133, January 2001.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=49822

27 Liu S, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, et al. A prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1455-61.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=49822

28 Simin Liu, JoAnn E Manson, Frank B Hu and Walter C Willett, Reply to BO Schneeman, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 73, No. 1, 130-131, January 2001.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=49822

29 J Jeppesen, P Schaaf, C Jones, MY Zhou, YD Chen and GM Reaven Effects of low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets on risk factors for ischemic heart disease in postmenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol 65, 1027-1033, 1997.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=49823

30 MB Katan, Effect of low-fat diets on plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol 67, 573S-576S, 1998.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=48665

31 Eric C Westman Is dietary carbohydrate essential for human nutrition? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 75, No. 5, 951-953, May 2002.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=46187

32 Simin Liu, JoAnn E Manson, Julie E Buring, Meir J Stampfer, Walter C Willett and Paul M Ridker, Relation between a diet with a high glycemic load and plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in middle-aged women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 75, No. 3, 492-498, March 2002.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=46832

33 Kromhout et al. Dietary saturated and trans fatty acids and cholesterol and 25-year mortality from coronary heart disease: the Seven Countries Study.Prev Med 1995; 24: 308-15

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/...5&dopt=Abstract

34 Kafatos A, Diacatou A, Voukiklaris G, Nikolakakis N, Vlachonikolis J, Kounali D, Mamalakis G, Dontas AS. Heart disease risk-factor status and dietary changes in the Cretan population over the past 30 y: the Seven Countries Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1997 Jun;65(6):1882-6.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/...7&dopt=Abstract

35 L Serra-Majem, L Ribas, R Tresserras, J Ngo and L Salleras. How could changes in diet explain changes in coronary heart disease mortality in Spain? The Spanish paradox American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol 61, 1351S-1359S, 1995.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=50652

36 Boucher P, de Lorgeril M, Salen P, Crozier P, Delaye J, Vallon JJ, Geyssant A, Dante R.
Effect of dietary cholesterol on low density lipoprotein-receptor, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, and low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mRNA expression in healthy humans. Lipids 1998 Dec;33(12):1177-86.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...=&postid=500744

37 Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, Manson JE, Ascherio A, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Spiegelman D, Speizer FE, Sacks FM, Hennekens CH, Willett WC. A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women. JAMA 1999 Apr 21;281(15):1387-94.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=49822
http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=46819

38 McNamara DJ. Dietary cholesterol and the optimal diet for reducing risk of atherosclerosis. Can J Cardiol 1995 Oct;11 Suppl G:123G-126G.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=54219

39 Jones PJ, Pappu AS, Hatcher L, Li ZC, Illingworth DR, Connor WE, Dietary cholesterol feeding suppresses human cholesterol synthesis measured by deuterium incorporation and urinary mevalonic acid levels. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1996 Oct;16(10):1222-8.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/...7&dopt=Abstract

40 Menotti A, Keys A, Blackburn H, Kromhout D, Karvonen M, Nissinen A, Pekkanen J, Punsar S, Fidanza F, Giampaoli S, Seccareccia F, Buzina R, Mohacek I, Nedeljkovic S, Aravanis C, Dontas A, Toshima H, Lanti M. Comparison of multivariate predictive power of major risk factors for coronary heart diseases in different countries: results from eight nations of the Seven Countries Study, 25-year follow-up. J Cardiovasc Risk 1996 Feb;3(1):69-75.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/...3&dopt=Abstract

41 Verschuren WM, Jacobs DR, Bloemberg BP, Kromhout D, Menotti A, Aravanis C, Blackburn H, Buzina R, Dontas AS, Fidanza F, et al. Serum total cholesterol and long-term coronary heart disease mortality in different cultures. Twenty-five-year follow-up of the seven countries study. JAMA 1995 Jul 12;274(2):131-6.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/...0&dopt=Abstract

42 Walter C Willett, Reply to AE Hardman American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, No. 4, 1061-1062, October 2000.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=52420

43 Walter C. Willett Will High-Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diets Reduce the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease? Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 2000 Dec; 225(3):187-90.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=52776

44 Lapidus L, Bengtsson C, Lindquist O, Sigurdsson JA, Rybo E. Triglycerides--main lipid risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women? Acta Med Scand 1985;217(5):481-9.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=52961

45 Harjai KJ. Potential new cardiovascular risk factors : left ventricular hypertrophy, homocysteine, lipoprotein(a), triglycerides , oxidative stress, and fibrinogen. Ann Intern Med 1999 Sep 7;131(5):376-86.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=52961
http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=53891

46 Walter Willett, Meir Stampfer, Nain-Feng Chu, Donna Spiegelman, Michelle Holmes and Eric Rimm Assessment of Questionnaire Validity for Measuring Total Fat Intake using Plasma Lipid Levels as Criteria American Journal of Epidemiology Vol. 154, No. 12 : 1107-1112
2001.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=52961

47 Ronald M. Krauss, et al, AHA Dietary Guidelines : Revision 2000: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association Circulation 0: 2296-2311.
48 Salmeron J, Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rimm EB, Willett WC. Dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in women.Am J Clin Nutr 2001 Jun;73(6):1019-26.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=52914

49 Marion J. Franz, et al. Evidence-Based Nutrition Principles and Recommendations for the Treatment and Prevention of Diabetes and Related Complications Diabetes Care 25:148-198, 2002.
50 Barbara V. Howard, PhD; Judith Wylie-Rosett, RD, EdD AHA Scientific Statement Sugar and Cardiovascular Disease A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Committee on Nutrition of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association Circulation. 2002;106:523

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=52514

51 Very low fat diets may harm some people. BMJ 1998 Feb 21;316(7131):573

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=50498

52 Willett WC Dietary fat plays a major role in obesity: No. Obesity Review 2002 May;3(2):59-68.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=52414

53 Walter C Willett Is dietary fat a major determinant of body fat? Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67(suppl):556S-62S. 1998

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=47089

54 Westman EC, Yancy WS, Edman JS, Tomlin KF, Perkins CE, Effect of 6-month adherence to a very low carbohydrate diet program. Am J Med 2002 Jul;113(1):30-6.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=51444

55 Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH, Willett WC. Frequent nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women: prospective cohort study. BMJ 1998 Nov 14;317(7169):1341-5.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=49822

56 Loren Cordain, Janette Brand Miller, S Boyd Eaton, Neil Mann, Susanne HA Holt and John D Speth Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 71, No. 3, 682-692, March 2000.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=50470

57 Cordain L, Eaton SB, Miller JB, Mann N, Hill K. The paradoxical nature of hunter-gatherer diets: meat-based, yet non-atherogenic. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002 Mar;56 Suppl 1:S42-52.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=50470

58 Loren Cordain, Janette Brand Miller, S Boyd Eaton and Neil Mann Macronutrient estimations in hunter-gatherer diets American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, No. 6, 1589-1590, December 2000.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=50470

59 Aiello LC, Wheeler PE. The expensive-tissue hypothesis. Current Anthropol 36:199-221, 1995.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=50699

60 S. Boyd Eaton, MD, Stanley B. Eaton III Evolution, Diet and Health , poster session, the Williamsburg-ICAES conference 1998.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=51039



Section 2 on trans fat and fat oxidation:

51 Ascherio A, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Master C, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. 1994. Trans-fatty acids intake and risk of myocardial infarction. Circulation 89:94-101.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=50278

52 Letter Report on Dietary Reference Intakes for Trans Fatty Acids; Institute of Medicine in the National Academy of Sciences, July 10, 2002. <http://www.iom.edu/iom/iomhome.nsf/Pages/FNB+Reports.>

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=50278

53 Dietary Guidelines for Americans <http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/dga/dga95/lowfat.html>

54 Felton CV et al: Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and composition of human aortic plaques. Lancet 1994; 344:1195-1196.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=51797

55 Nippon Rinsho, Modified low-density lipoprotein. 1994 Dec; 52(12):3090-5.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=51755
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/...4&dopt=Abstract

56 Bourre JM, Piciotti M. Alterations in eighteen-carbon saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxisomal oxidation in mouse brain during development and aging. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1997 Mar;41(3):461-8.

http://forum.lowcarber.org/showthre...&threadid=51755
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/...3&dopt=Abstract

Last edited by Voyajer : Mon, Aug-19-02 at 20:41.
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  #5   ^
Old Thu, Aug-22-02, 16:54
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ferrando ferrando is offline
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Default Totally Amazing Post

You are Good!
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  #6   ^
Old Mon, Sep-09-02, 19:26
BlueToo BlueToo is offline
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What else do you have on point 25? I have some issues with your wrapup.

1) At what point does what our ancestors eat become relelvant or irrelevant regarding what is best for us? In other words man 2M years ago primarily ate meat but chimps primarily ate fruit? Why looks at man 2M years ago versus chimps 4-7M years ago? Can evolution change (or better, did evolution change) the basic metabolic system between chimps and man such that one diet better reflects how our bodies should be fed? 2M years is nothing and I doubt it could seriously change much (in general is changed size only - brain, bone, muscle). In addition if you look over the broad range of primates the diets radically change per other work done by your reference 58. Chimps eat 5-10% meat at most. Which is the right comparable? Tough one to answer.

2) I don't have a good reference on this but I know more recent work has gone against the traditional concept of man as efficient meat hunter and relegated it to more of a vulture status - namely gathering meat that was left. And in most cases the remaining meat was brain or marrow - we were able to better extract brain meat from a skull/bones than other animals. In most cases brain meat is incredibly dense with protein and fats. Does that mean our best diet would be brain? Muscle meat has very different composition and therefore your're making a stretch. A second point is that there is only one study to my knowledge (Crawford, Michael) showing the absolute need for meat as a precursor to larger brain development.

3) If meat was 50% of our diet what was the other 50%? If that is all fruit then this is a problem with the evolutionary diet theory. Homo habilis ate more plant matter than meat but I can't find any studies on dietary breakdown.

4) "When the body is perfectly balanced it is disease-free" Huh? First of all what does 'perfectly balanced' mean? Are you saying that viral and bacterial infections don't affect the human body if we meet that definition of 'perfectly balanced'? Come on you're stretching here.

5) Man hasn't eaten grain for a most of his existence. Fine but if you are going to invoke this argument don't you have to invoke it for all the other stuff we haven't eaten for most of our existence? What meats aren't on that list? What vegetables aren't on that list? I don't know the answer but I know it wasn't that long ago that the homo lines of humans branched out of Africa and the potential for evolutionary forces to modify the metabolic/dietary process was too short to do anything radical. Therefore you could argue we should be eating meat and plants from the African region.
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Old Mon, Sep-09-02, 19:50
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ferrando ferrando is offline
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Default Brain Fat

I read somewhere that the fat in brain tissue is very high in Omega 3 fatty acids. All that brain eating may have helped develop human brains, particularly when the salmon (and other cold water fish) were not available. Again I think mother's milk is very high in omega 3 (provided the mother gets enough in her diet, so somehow human intelligence may be connected or supported by diet.

When a colleague became pregnant last year we chatted about Omega 3 fatty acids, and she decided to regularly to take flax oil and, when available, wild salmon. Her friends were calling the baby a "flax baby" even before it was born. I met her on a bike ride recently and she said that here baby was talking already, apparently 2 or 3 months ahead of when babies ususally start talking.

Just some thoughts, but I'm glad this tread is being continued as I expect that the amazing Voyajer will provide some more insights.

Ferrando
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Old Mon, Sep-09-02, 20:02
BlueToo BlueToo is offline
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That is very interesting. I've never heard the brain fat/omega 3 connection before. Would love to see an article on that - Any idea if that omega 3 has to be ingested or does our body have any capabilities to produce the compound?


TIA
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Old Tue, Sep-10-02, 00:33
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ferrando ferrando is offline
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Default Essential Fats for the Brain. Is that were the term "fathead"came from?

Omega 3 and Omega 6 oils are called "essential" fatty acids. They are considered "essential" because they are structural fats, important to life and we cannot make them ourselves. So we must get both from food. I am told that most people get enough Omega 6, but other experts tell me that the Omega 6 we get is often not of very high quality. Still the one we don't get a lot of is probably the first one to make sure we add to our diet and that is Omega 3.

I ran a search on Google using the string "brain omega 3" and got a number of interesting responses. I quote this one from:

http://www.alaskaseafood.org/flavor/omega.htm

Fetal and Child Development benefits of Omega 3

"It has been demonstrated that getting enough omega 3 fatty acids very early in life is critical. An omega 3 derivative called docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) actually helps build the brain, becoming rapidly incorporated into both the cerebral cortex and the retina three months before and three months after birth, and more slowly but no less significantly up until the age of two, when brain development is complete. ...Eating more fatty fish, such as salmon, is the most efficient way to build your store of omega-3s."

"Essential Fatty Assets," by Elizabeth Hiser, published in "Eating Well"


"Our results indicate that n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids should be considered provisionally essential for infant nutrition. DHA [docosahexaenoic acid] may also be required by individuals with inherited metabolic defects in elongation and desaturation activity, such as patients with peroxisomal disorders and some forms of retinitis pigmentosa. ...The mother's diet before pregnancy plays an important role in determining maternal EFA 'essential fatty acid' status. ...Major EFA deposition in the human fetus occurs during the third trimester. ...it has become generally accepted that n-6 as well as n-3 fatty acids play a key role in perinatal nutrition, especially for the developing central nervous system."

"Role of Essential Fatty Acids in the Function of the Developing Nervous System," by Ricardo Uauy, Patricio Peirano, Dennis Hoffman, et al, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile and Retina Foundation of the Southwest, Dallas, Texas published in Lipids, Vol. 31 Supplement (1996)


I strongly recommend the other quotes on the page link provided above. Also some of the other results from the google search are worth exploring if this subject is of interest to you.

Ferrando.

PS when I was doing a research project for a client I read a quote from Mary Enig where I think she suggested that Coconut oil (you know the so called evil tropical oil) might one day be considered "essential" as well. She was referring to the powerful anti viral and anti bacterial benefits that oil provides.
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Old Sun, Oct-20-02, 11:03
dan_rose dan_rose is offline
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Thumbs up

I think it is a great idea to post reviews like this, as it seems daft for all of us to read (and try to understand) the many research studies that have been conducted.

An idea:

Would it be possible to set up a dedicated page that contains known and proveable facts (with references) regarding what one should/should-not eat. Such a page could be put together by the well-read senior members for us all to use. It could then be updated as and when new research is published.

A benefit would be that we don't have to keep filling the pockets of all those flogging diet books (they can't all be right!)

If such a resource already exists, then please point me to it and forget this post.

Thanks.
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Old Fri, Mar-21-03, 00:35
gfehr3 gfehr3 is offline
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Default Proof of balanced diet benefits.

I appreciate the sound research that has gone into the posts I've seen on this forum.

I would like to know if anyone has been able to come up with any refererences to validated studies that a balanced diet is a way to ward off arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).

I have two friends that have suffered heart attack and cariac arrest that were models of fitness and attempted to do everything to improve their cardio vascular systems. Both very lean in body mass, one with a wife that was a registered nutritionist and RN.

One is now mentally incapacitated and was eating the low fat, Becel margarine as the only recommended spread on their diets, as endorsed by both the Canadian and US heart associations.

The other is recovering from triple by pass and is very lucky to be alive and with all faculties intact.

I have yet to see an article that shows the benefits of eating the so called heart healthy way will improve hardening of the arteries.

Wondered if anyone else has or it is just a myth.
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Old Wed, Oct-29-03, 12:40
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bvtaylor bvtaylor is offline
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Default

I came across this from DANDR:

p. 356 -
Quote:
1997: In a twenty-year follow-up of 832 men tracked in the world-famous Framingham Heart Study, researchers matched incidence of stroke (there were 61 in all) with dietary intake. The men with the highest intake of dietary fat had the fewest strokes; the men with the lowest had the most strokes.

He goes on to mention the list of indicators for heart disease, so without knowing what your apparently healthy friends looked like on the inside, it's difficult to speculate:

Quote:
TOTAL CHOLESTEROL
LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (LDL)
HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (HDL)
TRYGLYCERIDE
HDL TO TOTAL CHOLESTEROL RATIO
HOMOCYSTEINE is a by-product of defective protein metabolism. An elevated level is a powerful marker for heart disease and stroke risk. High homocysteine levels also indicate a dificiency of folic acide, a B vitamin. (Homocysteine level can be reduced with the intake of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid.)...
LIPOPROTEIN (A) is a high-risk component of LDL cholesterol. In the last 10 years it has been recognized as a strong risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Elevated levels may indicate insufficient intake of vitamin C, which is needed to maintain healthy blood vessels....
C-REACTIVE PROTEIN is an antibody. It appears that some heart-attack victims actually have an infectious component to their disease, which has little to do with following a sound dietary approach. The result is chronically inflamed blood vessels that are widely regarded as part of the atherosclerotic disease process. High levels of C-reactive protein have been found to increase the risk of heart disease by 4 1/2 times...
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Old Wed, Oct-29-03, 17:58
gfehr3 gfehr3 is offline
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Thanks for your reply and added information. I can see that I will need to ask any questions in a much less ambiguous way. My fault for not wording it clearly.

What I have been searching for is the base research findings that support what is currently recommended by US and Canadian nutritionists and the medical communitiy at large. What I have noted is that the Framingham study has been touted as the basis for these recommendations however other very well respected researchers (Mary Enig, University of Maryland for example) reviewed the raw data and have come to different conclusions. Unfortunately much of the raw data research results are hidden from the average person behind pay based electronic publishers.

With the Framingham study It appears to be a case of picking the data that supports the hypothesis and ignoring what doesn't fit or perhaps interpreting the results in a non scientific way. This is generally considered to be an abuse of statistics however only if you get caught.

Still seaching for the underpinnings of our current dietary recommendations. Any help would be appreciated.
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  #14   ^
Old Fri, Nov-28-03, 14:22
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IslandGirl IslandGirl is offline
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Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by gfehr3
...What I have noted is that the Framingham study has been touted as the basis for these recommendations however other very well respected researchers (Mary Enig, University of Maryland for example) reviewed the raw data and have come to different conclusions. Unfortunately much of the raw data research results are hidden from the average person behind pay based electronic publishers.

With the Framingham study It appears to be a case of picking the data that supports the hypothesis and ignoring what doesn't fit or perhaps interpreting the results in a non scientific way. This is generally considered to be an abuse of statistics however only if you get caught.

Still seaching for the underpinnings of our current dietary recommendations. Any help would be appreciated.
Unfortunately, you have for the most part answered your own question.

There are no true underpinnings for the current dietary recommendations, only assumptions and wide extrapolations from narrow datapoints.

Have you gone to the (I hear now public) Medline at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed/ ?

You might also find this site an excellent place to track down both pro and con scientific opinions (there's a reason they call them opinions ) at The International Network of Cholesteral Skeptics ... http://www.thincs.org/index.htm ... all scientists tried and true.

The pharmaceutical companies really don't want everybody to know that approximately 50% of heart attack victims have 'normal' cholesteral...

Last edited by IslandGirl : Fri, Nov-28-03 at 14:26.
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Old Tue, Jan-27-04, 11:36
Ursula Ursula is offline
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Default

What oils are polyunsaturated? I use olive oil and I know that's monounsaturated, and also peanut oil--I don't know what that is.
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