This recent study used the data from the above study to emphasize that an omega-3 polyunsaturated diet was better than a saturated fat diet. That is when you look at total cholesterol and LDL. Even this study admits that HDL is better with saturated fat diets [saturated fat is found in animal products].
If anyone here recalls the article on the so-called Spanish Paradox i.e. that eating meat and dairy in Spain increased and heart disease decreased, this study says it was probably due to the fact that the Spaniards have high HDL [good cholesterol] so that made up for the fact that they ate more meat and dairy. This is a ridiculous conclusion since it was shown that the meat and dairy caused the high HDL in the first place!
A new determining factor in heart disease is a breakdown analysis of the particles in HDL. Two of such particles in HDL [good cholesterol] are APO A1 and APO A2. Apo A1 is the good stuff. More of it is better. Apo A2 is the bad stuff. Less is better. With saturated fat, the good Apo A1 increases and the bad Apo A2 decreases!
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 75, No. 3, 484-491, March 2002
Fatty acid saturation of the diet and plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein particle concentrations, and cholesterol efflux capacity1,2,3
Maria Teresa Montoya, Amelia Porres, Sagrario Serrano, Jean Charles Fruchart, Pedro Mata, Juan Antonio Gómez Gerique and Graciela Rosa Castro
Conclusions: The monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat diets were healthier, producing a better lipid profile. The n-3 polyunsaturated fat diet increased the capacity of serum to promote the efflux of cholesterol from cells in culture.
The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the main cause of death and morbidity in developed countries (1), is closely related to diet, mainly to fat composition. The type of fat in the diet can modify the lipid profile, which is directly related to the growth of atheroma plaque (2, 3). In Spain, the mortality rate due to this disease is relatively low compared with that in other developed countries
(4, 5). This finding could be explained by 2 facts: the Spanish diet is rich in vegetables, fruit, fish, and oils containing monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), a regimen considered favorable for cardiovascular health (6), and Spaniards have elevated plasma concentrations of HDL
Lipid and lipoprotein profile
Lipid and lipoprotein particle profiles (Table 3) were analyzed for each sex independently because the cholesterol efflux analysis showed a significant interaction between sex and the responses obtained in each diet period. Serum concentrations of total and LDL cholesterol were significantly lower in both sexes after all of the unsaturated fat diets than after the SFA diet. The addition of n-3 PUFA did not cause further significant modifications in the women, but the men had a lower LDL concentration with the n-3 PUFA diet than with the other diets. Triacylglycerol concentrations in the men were significantly lower with the PUFA diets than with the SFA and MUFA diets, but this result was seen only with the MUFA diet in the women. HDL-cholesterol concentrations did not differ among diet phases in either sex. In the women, but not in the men, the serum HDL phospholipid concentration was significantly lower after the n-3 PUFA [polyunsaturated] diet than after the SFA [saturated] diet.
Serum concentrations of apo A-I measured in the SFA phase were significantly higher than with the diets rich in MUFA or n-3 PUFA in the women; in the men, apo A-I concentrations were significantly lower only with the PUFA-rich diets. In the women, apo B concentrations were significantly lower with the diets rich in PUFA than with the other diets. In the men, apo B concentrations were lower with the MUFA and n-3 PUFA diets than with the other diets.
2.4.2. Apolipoprotein A1
Apolipoprotein A1 is the major lipoprotein in HDL and the primary acceptor for unesterified cholesterol from the peripheral tissues (von Eckardstein et al. 1993, Forte et al. 1993). The plasma apo A1 concentration is lower in smokers than in non-smokers (Dullaart et al. 1994), and exercise training increases the plasma level of apo A1 (Foger et al. 1994). Simvastatin has been reported to increase the plasma apo A1 concentration, especially in patients with nonfamilial hyperlipoproteinemia type II a (Homma et al. 1995). Several epidemiological studies have revealed an inverse relationship between coronary artery disease and the plasma apo A1 concentration (Stampfer et al. 1991, Buring et al. 1992, Amouyel et al. 1993).