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  #1   ^
Old Fri, Jul-26-02, 23:48
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Voyajer Voyajer is offline
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Default 27 studies show saturated fat raises HDL

Walter Willett used this study [it isn't really a study, but an analytical review of 27 studies, so it is more important than one single study] to prove that replacing saturated fat [animal fat] with carbohydrate lowered HDL [good cholesterol] and raised triglycerides even though total cholesterol and LDL [bad cholesterol] were lowered by carbs over saturated fat. The point is that HDL and triglycerides are now considered the primary indicators of heart disease risk. Willett then said that replacing saturated fat [animal fat, palm oil, coconut oil] with monounsaturated fat [olive oil] lowers total cholesterol and LDL but doesn't lower HDL and doesn't raise triglycerides.

When I actually looked at the abstract, I was in for a big surprise! This says that the best way to raise HDL [good cholesterol] is to eat saturated fat! It says ALL fats raised HDL , but saturated fat raised it the most!

It hasn't been proven that total cholesterol is significant in figuring risk for heart disease. But it has been proven that HDL is significant. Saturated fat may keep total cholesterol a little higher than the other fats, but it keeps HDL at the highest.

This type of study review can't easily be argued against since it is a consensus of 27 controlled studies. Unbelievable that it was published in 1992 and the Amer Heart Assoc didn't mention it until 2000 in its guidelines for diet. And even then it gets a small paragraph that says in cases of low HDL perhaps it would be best to increase unsaturated [such as vegetable oil and fish oil, not saturated] fats in the diet. At this pace, the general public is not going to get the message for another 20 years.

I'll update this when I get a copy of the full article in a few days.

Arterioscler Thromb 1992 Aug;12(8):911-9

Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A meta-analysis of 27 trials.
Mensink RP, Katan MB.

Department of Human Biology, Limburg University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

To calculate the effect of changes in carbohydrate and fatty acid intake on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels, we reviewed 27 controlled trials published between 1970 and 1991 that met specific inclusion criteria. These studies yielded 65 data points, which were analyzed by multiple regression analysis using isocaloric exchanges of saturated (sat), monounsaturated (mono), and polyunsaturated (poly) fatty acids versus carbohydrates (carb) as the independent variables. For high density lipoprotein (HDL) we found the following equation: delta HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) = 0.012 x (carb----sat) + 0.009 x (carb----mono) + 0.007 x (carb---- poly) or, in milligrams per deciliter, 0.47 x (carb----sat) + 0.34 x (carb----mono) + 0.28 x (carb----poly). Expressions in parentheses denote the percentage of daily energy intake from carbohydrates that is replaced by saturated, cis-monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fatty acids. All fatty acids elevated HDL cholesterol when substituted for carbohydrates, but the effect diminished with increasing unsaturation of the fatty acids. For low density lipoprotein (LDL) the equation was delta LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) = 0.033 x (carb----sat) - 0.006 x (carb----mono) - 0.014 x (carb----poly) or, in milligrams per deciliter, 1.28 x (carb----sat) - 0.24 x (carb----mono) - 0.55 x (carb---- poly). The coefficient for polyunsaturates was significantly different from zero, but that for monounsaturates was not. For triglycerides the equation was delta triglycerides (mmol/l) = -0.025 x (carb----sat) - 0.022 x (carb----mono) - 0.028 x (carb---- poly) or, in milligrams per deciliter, -2.22 x (carb----sat) - 1.99 x (carb----mono) - 2.47 x (carb----poly).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Last edited by Voyajer : Sun, Jul-28-02 at 10:35.
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  #2   ^
Old Sat, Jul-27-02, 00:15
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Voyajer Voyajer is offline
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This recent study used the data from the above study to emphasize that an omega-3 polyunsaturated diet was better than a saturated fat diet. That is when you look at total cholesterol and LDL. Even this study admits that HDL is better with saturated fat diets [saturated fat is found in animal products].

If anyone here recalls the article on the so-called Spanish Paradox i.e. that eating meat and dairy in Spain increased and heart disease decreased, this study says it was probably due to the fact that the Spaniards have high HDL [good cholesterol] so that made up for the fact that they ate more meat and dairy. This is a ridiculous conclusion since it was shown that the meat and dairy caused the high HDL in the first place!

IMPORTANT: A new determining factor in heart disease is a breakdown analysis of the particles in HDL. Two of such particles in HDL [good cholesterol] are APO A1 and APO A2. Apo A1 is the good stuff. More of it is better. Apo A2 is the bad stuff. Less is better. With saturated fat, the good Apo A1 increases and the bad Apo A2 decreases!

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 75, No. 3, 484-491, March 2002

Fatty acid saturation of the diet and plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein particle concentrations, and cholesterol efflux capacity1,2,3
Maria Teresa Montoya, Amelia Porres, Sagrario Serrano, Jean Charles Fruchart, Pedro Mata, Juan Antonio Gómez Gerique and Graciela Rosa Castro

Conclusions: The monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat diets were healthier, producing a better lipid profile. The n-3 polyunsaturated fat diet increased the capacity of serum to promote the efflux of cholesterol from cells in culture.

Introduction:
The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the main cause of death and morbidity in developed countries (1), is closely related to diet, mainly to fat composition. The type of fat in the diet can modify the lipid profile, which is directly related to the growth of atheroma plaque (2, 3). In Spain, the mortality rate due to this disease is relatively low compared with that in other developed countries (4, 5). This finding could be explained by 2 facts: the Spanish diet is rich in vegetables, fruit, fish, and oils containing monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), a regimen considered favorable for cardiovascular health (6), and Spaniards have elevated plasma concentrations of HDL (7).

Lipid and lipoprotein profile
Lipid and lipoprotein particle profiles (Table 3) were analyzed for each sex independently because the cholesterol efflux analysis showed a significant interaction between sex and the responses obtained in each diet period. Serum concentrations of total and LDL cholesterol were significantly lower in both sexes after all of the unsaturated fat diets than after the SFA diet. The addition of n-3 PUFA did not cause further significant modifications in the women, but the men had a lower LDL concentration with the n-3 PUFA diet than with the other diets. Triacylglycerol concentrations in the men were significantly lower with the PUFA diets than with the SFA and MUFA diets, but this result was seen only with the MUFA diet in the women. HDL-cholesterol concentrations did not differ among diet phases in either sex. In the women, but not in the men, the serum HDL phospholipid concentration was significantly lower after the n-3 PUFA [polyunsaturated] diet than after the SFA [saturated] diet.

Serum concentrations of apo A-I measured in the SFA phase were significantly higher than with the diets rich in MUFA or n-3 PUFA in the women; in the men, apo A-I concentrations were significantly lower only with the PUFA-rich diets. In the women, apo B concentrations were significantly lower with the diets rich in PUFA than with the other diets. In the men, apo B concentrations were lower with the MUFA and n-3 PUFA diets than with the other diets.
---------------
2.4.2. Apolipoprotein A1
Apolipoprotein A1 is the major lipoprotein in HDL and the primary acceptor for unesterified cholesterol from the peripheral tissues (von Eckardstein et al. 1993, Forte et al. 1993). The plasma apo A1 concentration is lower in smokers than in non-smokers (Dullaart et al. 1994), and exercise training increases the plasma level of apo A1 (Foger et al. 1994). Simvastatin has been reported to increase the plasma apo A1 concentration, especially in patients with nonfamilial hyperlipoproteinemia type II a (Homma et al. 1995). Several epidemiological studies have revealed an inverse relationship between coronary artery disease and the plasma apo A1 concentration (Stampfer et al. 1991, Buring et al. 1992, Amouyel et al. 1993).

http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514251...279.html#AEN284

Last edited by Voyajer : Sun, Jul-28-02 at 10:14.
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  #3   ^
Old Sat, Jul-27-02, 00:31
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Voyajer Voyajer is offline
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Plan: Protein Power LP Dilletan
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Another study showing that a saturated fat (palm oil) diet increases HDL cholesterol with total cholesterol.

The American Society for Nutritional Sciences J. Nutr. 132:50-54, 2002

Dietary Fat Saturation Affects Apolipoprotein AII Levels and HDL Composition in Postmenopausal Women
Francisco J. Sánchez-Muniz*, Mari Cruz Merinero*, Sonia Rodríguez-Gil*, Jose M Ordovas, Sofía Ródenas and Carmen Cuesta**

* Departamento de Nutrición, Sección Departamental de Química Analítica, ** Instituto de Nutrición y Bromatología (CSIC-UCM), Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain and Nutrition and Genomics, Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111

2To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: frasan~farm.ucm.es.

Increased HDL-cholesterol levels have been associated with lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. However, HDL are heterogeneous lipoproteins, and particles enriched in apolipoprotein (Apo) AII have been associated with increased CHD risk. We examined the effect of dietary intervention on HDL composition in 14 postmenopausal women subjected to two consecutive diet periods, i.e., an oleic acid sunflower oil diet followed by a palmolein diet, each lasting 4 wk. The linoleic acid was kept at 4% total energy and the cholesterol intake at 400 mg/d. The palmolein diet increased serum total cholesterol (TC) (P < 0.001), phospholipids (P < 0.001), Apo AII (P < 0.001), HDL cholesterol (P < 0.05), HDL lipids (P < 0.05), HDL proteins (P < 0.01) and the HDL total mass (P < 0.05). The HDL cholesterol/Apo AI ratio was increased 22.0% (P < 0.05), whereas the HDL cholesterol/Apo AII and the Apo AI/Apo AII ratios were decreased 19.4% (P < 0.01) and 30.4%, (P < 0.001), respectively. When the effects of the dietary intervention were examined according to the cholesterolemia status (< or >6.2 mmol/L), the most significant changes (P < 0.001) were related to Apo AII levels. Moreover, a significant dietary oil by cholesterol level interaction was found for Apo AII and the HDL cholesterol/Apo AII ratio. In summary, a palmolein diet increased TC and HDL cholesterol compared with oleic acid sunflower oil diet; however, the increase in Apo AII but not in Apo AI suggests the impairment of reverse cholesterol transport and potentially an increase in CHD risk. This effect was more marked in women with serum TC > 6.2 mmol/L.
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  #4   ^
Old Tue, Jul-30-02, 14:55
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Voyajer Voyajer is offline
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Plan: Protein Power LP Dilletan
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Okay, I got the full article. What it says is that high-fat diets have a favorable effect on serum lipids (cholesterol) i.e. high-fat diets are good for cholesterol and the amount of fat in the diet should never be reduced. The only good they think can come is replacing saturated fat with unsaturated fat. (Of course, I somewhat disagree with this last statement. But the overall message of not reducing fats in the diet is a good one. What concerns me is that this was shown 10 years ago.) The problem with fingering saturated fats in this article as the culprit out of the fat family is that stearic acid was purposely left out of consideration in this study. The reason is as Gary Taubes wrote in his The Soft Science of Dietary Fat article: "And some saturated fats--stearic acid, in particular, the fat in chocolate--are at worst neutral. Stearic acid raises HDL levels but does little or nothing to LDL." A third of the saturated fat in red meat is stearic acid. Now if stearic acid were considered in this analysis of 27 studies, it probably would have been found that saturated fat was equal to unsaturated fat in creating a favorable lipid profile. This is still a good review of the studies to prove that fats help cholesterol and carbohydrates harm cholesterol:

Arterioscler Thromb 1992 Aug;12(8):911-9

Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A meta-analysis of 27 trials.
Mensink RP, Katan MB.

Department of Human Biology, Limburg University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

To calculate the effect of changes in carbohydrate and fatty acid intake on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels, we reviewed 27 controlled trials published between 1970 and 1991 that met specific inclusion criteria. These studies yielded 65 data points, which were analyzed by multiple regression analysis using isocaloric exchanges of saturated (sat), monounsaturated (mono), and polyunsaturated (poly) fatty acids versus carbohydrates (carb) as the independent variables. All fatty acids elevated HDL cholesterol when substituted for carbohydrates, but the effect diminished with increasing unsaturation of the fatty acids. Tus, replacement of carbohydrates by fat lowered serum triglycerides independent of the nature of the fat. Replacement of saturated by unsaturated fatty acids raised the HDL to LDL cholesterol ratio, whereas replacement by carbohydrates had no effect. Thus, under isocaloric, metabolic-ward conditions the most favorable lipoprotein risk profile for coronary heart disease was achieved if saturated fatty acids were replaced by unsaturated fatty acids, with no decrease in total fat intake . Extrapolation of our data to free-living populations requires more insight into effects of diet on body weight; if high-oil diets promote obesity, then their favorable effects on serum lipids will be lost. [mathematical calculations omitted]

Last edited by Voyajer : Tue, Jul-30-02 at 15:07.
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